The main difference between a temple fade and a taper fade is the area on the head on which each technique is performed. You perform a temple fade at the temple, and you can perform a taper fade anywhere on the head including the nape, above the ears, at the occipital bone and at the rounds of the head.
You can achieve a taper fade by cutting the hair closer toward the edges of the hairline and gradually allowing it to remain longer the further away from the hairline you get. For example, you can achieve the classic 1,2,3 fade by using the number 1 clipper guard on the hair closest to the hairline. You then use the number 2 guard, which is slightly longer, directly above the spot where you used the 1 guard, and then you use the number 3 guard at the top of the head to create graduating length.
You can also execute taper fades using a clipper-over-comb technique. In this technique, the barber holds the comb at an angle that allows more hair to be taken off closer at the hairline when the clippers are passed along the outside of the comb. For more control, some barbers substitute shears for clippers when performing this technique.