A root hair cell is made up of the root hair, the vacuole, the cytoplasm, the nucleus, the cell membrane and, since this is a plant structure, a cell wall. Water and nutrients enter through the root hair, a semipermeable structure that is in direct contact with the soil.
The vacuole acts as a storage bubble for the root hair cell. Made of a simple membrane, it releases the water and nutrients to the rest of the cell and the plant when needed. A well-watered plant with full vacuoles has stems and leaves that stand tall and are filled out. If the vacuoles are empty, the plant droops.
The cytoplasm contains the vacuole and other cell structures, such as the nucleus. It is another membrane that allows liquids and nutrients to move in and out. The nucleus contains the plant DNA and RNA. The latter helps distribute proteins and genetic information to other parts of the plant. The nucleolus, appearing as tiny,dark spot, is where the protein producing ribosomes are formed.
The cell membrane in a root hair cell is semipermeable membrane that holds the entire cell together. The cell wall forms outside the membrane, is a made of cellulose and acts as an exoskeleton. A cell wall gives a root hair cell its distinctive shape.