The United Nations' nomenclature of Territorial units for statistics divides Italy into the macro-regions of North-West, North-East, Central, Southern and Islands. Italy's provincial regions all fall within these macro-regions.
The North-West macro-region is made up of Aosta Valley, Piedmonte, Lombardy and Liguria. Emilia-Romagna, Veneto, Trentino-South Tyrol and Friuli-Venezia Giulia make up the North-East macro-region. The Central macro-region is comprised of Tuscany, Marche, Umbria and Lazio. Abruzzo, Campania, Molise, Puglia, Basilicata and Cambria are the regions of the Southern macro-region. Sardinia and Sicily are the only two members of the Islands macro-region.
The major city of the North-West macro-region is Milan. The North-East's major city is Bologna. Rome is the Central macro-region's major city and Naples that of the South. Palermo, in Sicily, is the major city of the Islands' macro-region.
The regions and macro-regions have a large variety of climates, foods and topographies. The North is dominated by the Alps and is the coolest region of the country. The South has a warm, Mediterranean climate.
Of the 20 regions, 15 have ordinary statutes and five have special statutes awarded because of their individual circumstances. These special regions are Sardinia, Sicily, Trentino-Soutyh Tyrol, Aosta Valley and Friuli-Venezia Giulia. These regions effectively have home rule and keep between 60 percent (Friuli-Venezia Giulia) and 100 percent (Sardinia) of all taxes raised.