In healthy people, fever, emotional stress and intense exercise can temporarily increase protein levels in the urine, according to the American Association for Clinical Chemistry. Abnormal protein levels may also point to kidney damage due to diabetes and hypertension.
Healthy kidneys prevent protein from appearing in the urine, according to the National Kidney Foundation. When abnormal amounts of protein show up in a urine test, a physician may check blood pressure and kidney function, if kidney disease is suspected. Patients may also be referred to a specialist.
Treatments for abnormal protein levels differ based on the underlying cause. Treatments include medications and lifestyle changes, such as weight loss and smoking cessation, according to the National Kidney Foundation.