As with many cancers, the prognosis for leiomyosarcoma varies depending on the stage of the cancer at time of diagnosis; patients with localized leiomyosarcoma may expect a 5-year survival rate of 63 percent, while that number reduces to 36 and 14 percent, respectively, for patients with regional or widespread cancers. Leiomyosarcoma classifies as a rare type of cancer that develops in the smooth muscle. It appears most often in the uterus, but like other cancers, may spread beyond the initial site if not detected and treated soon enough.
Experts use a 5-year outlook chart when predicting the survival rate for patients with leiomyosarcoma. This 5-year window helps oncologists determine the likelihood that each patient will survive for the next 5 years, drawing on comparisons from past histories in patients with the same cancer diagnosed at the same stage.
Prognosis with leiomyosarcoma, like most cancers, remains best when oncologists catch cancer at its earliest stage, or stage I. At this stage, cancer has not spread beyond the uterus. Cancer diagnosed at stages II or III, however, includes spreading to surrounding tissues and possibly lymph nodes. Survival rates decrease at this stage, and become lower at stages IV and and V, when cancer spreads widely. Improvements in treatment and medicines at all stages may improve the likelihood of survival for patients with cancer at all stages, according to the American Cancer Society.