French explorer Jacques Cartier's journeys consisted of three voyages, which took place in 1534, 1535 to 1536, and 1541 to 1542. His second voyage, which lasted 14 months, was the most profitable.
Cartier's first voyage began on April 20, 1534. After a 20-day trip across the Atlantic Ocean, his ship reached Newfoundland on May 10. He and his crew explored the area and had encounters with aboriginal peoples of Canada. Trading occurred during the first two encounters, but on the third, Cartier captured two sons of the Iroquoians' captain and claimed the land in the name of France's king.
The captain eventually let Cartier take his sons, as long as they brought back European goods. Cartier sailed back to France and landed there in September 1534.
His next voyage began on May 19, 1535. He left two ships in a harbor by Stadacona, and took one ship to Montreal. He arrived on Oct. 2, 1535. After spending two days there, he went back to Stadacona, arriving on October 11. He and his men spent the winter there before heading back to France in May 1536, arriving on July 15.
Cartier's last voyage to Canada began on May 23, 1941. Believing he found diamonds and gold, Cartier sent two ships back to France on September 2. He began looking for Saguenay on September 7, but was unsuccessful. Cartier began his return trip in June 1542 and arrived in October. The diamonds and gold turned out to be quartz crystals and iron pyrite.