Superman's real name on Krypton is Kal-El. He was given his Earth name, Clark Joseph Kent, by the rural Kansas couple that found him as a baby.
It was this same couple that taught Superman to use his extraordinary super-powers of strength, flight, superhuman hearing and X-ray vision for a morally righteous cause.
His enemies are those of the public at large — greedy corporate oligarchs like Lex Luthor — and he combats these not only as Superman, or Kal-El, but as Clark Kent the reporter as well.
In addition to the name Superman, he is also often referred to as the "Man of Steel."