Q:

# How are structures made resistant to earthquakes?

A:

The key to constructing an earthquake-resistant building is to minimize the forces acting upon it, rather than to maximize the strength of the building itself. Among the methods used to accomplish this are base isolation systems and energy dissipation devices.

## Keep Learning

Base isolation refers to the way in which buildings are separated from their foundations by bearing pads. Among the various types of bearings, the lead-rubber kind consist of a central solid lead plug surrounded by alternating layers of rubber and steel stiffening plates. Securely attached to the building and foundations, bearings are rigid vertically but flexible horizontally. When an earthquake occurs, these bearings absorb the shock and help to prevent the building from changing shape or 'deforming.'

Energy dissipation devices, or dampers, are intended to aid the natural capacity of buildings to dampen the shock of earthquakes, but without them undergoing deformation. Since earthquake tremors tend to be horizontal in motion, dampers are often installed as part of a brace between columns and ground beams. Unlike base isolation systems, dampers can be retrofitted to an existing building. There are a number of damping device types, including friction, metallic, viscoelastic and fluid viscous. Dampers are also useful for offsetting the weakening impact of strong winds.

Sources:

## Related Questions

• A:

Architects use the Pythagorean theorem, which is expressed by the equation: a2 + b2 = c2, in designing and computing the measurements of building structures and bridges. One example involves roof design. A gable roof is made of two right triangles, where the base of one right triangle is called the run, the height is called the rise and the slope is called the rafter.

Filed Under:
• A:

Some distinct design characteristics of American farmhouses include exterior clapboard siding, wide porches and simple gabled roof structures. These houses are typically built around basic shapes such as rectangular boxes that make framing and expansion easier. Interior features include monochrome color palettes, often keyed to white, and arts-and-crafts style furnishings and architectural details.

Filed Under:
• A:

Morton Buildings has floor and house plans for residential structures, farm and agriculture, and community and commercial buildings. As house customization is a major component of Morton Building's operations, there are no ready-made floor plans. Rather, there are company residential templates that serve as bases for floor customization by customers.