The "Robert" in "Robert's Rules of Order" was Henry Martyn Robert. Robert published the book in 1876 when he was a Major in the United States Army, though he would eventually rise to the rank of Brigadier General.
Robert based his eponymous rules on the procedures used for debate in the United States House of Representatives. His interest in parliamentary procedure stemmed from the 1860s, when he was asked to chair a church meeting but felt unprepared. Robert graduated from West Point in 1857 and was appointed to the Army Engineering Corps, helping to design the defenses of Washington, D.C. during the American Civil War and serving until 1901.