The literary devices Edgar Allan Poe uses in "The Raven" include imagery and symbolism, which he uses to portray the narrator's mood. Poe also incorporates a metaphor in the poem to create tension.
Imagery is a device Poe incorporates into this poem. The bird is black, representing darkness. The room is filled with shadows, which helps Poe create a gloomy mood. The raven slowly terrifies the narrator, which causes him to believe the bird is nothing but the image of a demon. His shadow at the end of the poem creates a sense of despair for the narrator.
Another device Poe uses is symbolism, with the raven being the most significant. Ravens are generally seen as a bad omen, and having the bird repeat the negative word, "Nevermore," adds to the overall hopeless ambiance Poe intended to create. Because the bird haunts the narrator, it becomes a symbol of evil.
Poe also uses a metaphor in the poem. Poe personifies the raven, making it more mysterious than the average raven should be. As the poem progresses, the raven becomes a prophet and then it turns into a devil. Its eyes burn into the narrator’s core, leading him to assume the raven has magical qualities with diabolical intentions.