Oscar-winning filmmakers include Kevin Costner, James Cameron, Martin Scorsese, Ang Lee, Anthony Minghella, Barry Levinson, Steven Spielberg, Bernardo Bertolucci, Ron Howard, Carol Reed, Elia Kazan, Ethan Coen and Francis Ford Coppola. John Huston, George Stevens and George Cukor are among the winners of the early ages of the Oscars.
Multiple-Oscar-winning filmmakers are John Ford, Frank Borzage, Clint Eastwood, Billy Wilder, Frank Capra, Lewis Milestone, Ang Lee, Milos Forman, Oliver Stone, Frank Lloyd, Steven Spielberg, Elia Kazan, Robert Wise, Joseph L. Mankiewicz, Fred Zinnemann, William Wyler, Leo McCarey and David Lean.
Also called the Academy Award for Best Directing, the Best Director Oscar is presented by the Academy of Motion Arts and Picture Sciences. Beginning in 1927, the Best Director Oscar was originally divided into two categories: Dramatic Direction and Comedy Direction. In 1928, the category was changed to name only one winner from all genres of film. As of 2015, Academy rules state that films with more than one director cannot be nominated for the Best Director Oscar, with the exception of approved established duos, such as brothers Joel and Ethan Coen.
To date, over 30 filmmakers have received multiple Oscar nominations for Best Director but have yet to win the award. These include notable directors such as Stanley Kubrick, Ridley Scott, George Lucas and Alfred Hitchcock.