George Orwell's dystopian novel, "1984," is rife with examples of irony, both verbal and situational. The verbal irony includes the "memory hole," the names of the government ministries and the party motto, while the protagonist's health status is an example of situational irony.
In verbal irony, the writer writes one thing but means something else. In Orwell's novel, the name "memory hole" implies that it is a place to store something that one wants to remember, when it is actually an incinerator. The names of the government ministries are also examples of verbal irony in the novel. The Ministry of Love is where torture takes place. The Ministry of Peace wages war with the constantly changing enemies of Oceania. The Ministry of Truth fabricates lies and issues propaganda. The Ministry of Plenty causes shortages. The motto of the ruling party, "War is Peace; Freedom is Slavery; Ignorance is Strength," is both ironic and an oxymoron.
In situational irony, a character or sequence of events appears headed toward one outcome but ends with another, unanticipated outcome. The protagonist's health is an example of situational irony. Throughout the novel Winston is portrayed as frail and sickly, but he undergoes a metamorphosis when he begins a relationship with Julia. Betrayal by Winston's seemingly loyal friends is another example of situational irony in this novel.