Good short stories written in Urdu include "Kaali Shalwar" by Saadat Hasan Manto and "Kafan" by Munshi Premchand. Novels written in Urdu include "Jangloos" by Shaukat Siddiqui, "Zindagi" by Chaudhry Afzal Haq, "Mirat-al-Urus" by Nazeer Ahmed and "Makaan" by Paigham Afaqui.
Until the late 19th century, most Urdu literature consisted of various forms of poetry, such as the ghazal and the nazm, and religious works that honored or discussed the life of Muhammad. The works of many Urdu poets and short story writers exist in collections, a few of which have been translated into English.
Urdu is the official language of Pakistan and is also spoken in northern India. Some Urdu writers in India wrote in both Urdu and Hindi.