A four line poem is known as a quatrain. A quatrain can also refer to a four line stanza. This form of poetry has been used historically by various cultures, such as Ancient Rome, the Middle East, China and Ancient Greece.
A quatrain can be written using 12 different rhyme schemes, and the most common ones are AABB, ABAB and AAAA. This type of poetry is also known as Ruba'i in Arabic, which was popularized by Omar Khayyam in Edward FitzGerald's translation of the famous work "Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam." An example of a quatrain from this work is: "Come, fill the Cup and the fire of Spring / Your Winter garment of Repentance fling: / The Bird of Time has but a little way / To flutter and the Bird is on the Wing."