Vincent van Gogh may be the most famous Dutch painter. Many of his works, including "Starry Night," "Sunflowers" and "Bedroom in Arles," are instantly recognizable and displayed at museums around the world. Van Gogh lived in the Netherlands between 1853 and 1890, and he famously sold only one painting in his lifetime, only finding widespread fame after his death.
Centuries before van Gogh, the "Golden Age of Dutch Painting" produced a number of famous Dutch artists, such as Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn, whose oil paintings include works such as "The Anatomy Lesson of Dr Tulp," painted in 1632; "Return of the Prodigal Son," completed circa 1666; and "The Night Watch," painted in 1642. Another painter of the same era was Johannes Vermeer, whose famous paintings include "Girl With a Pearl Earring," "The Milkmaid" and "A Girl Reading a Letter by an Open Window."
In the 20th Century, Dutch artist Piet Mondrian helped to introduce the movement De Stijl. His abstract paintings, which gained widespread fame in the 1920s, moved away from representation and the outside world, emphasizing lines, rectangles and blocks of color. The philosophy behind Mondrian's work was the spirituality of nature, which he attempted to reduce to its most basic elements through simple lines, shapes, and colors.