Different types of bricks are adobe brick, clinker brick, common brick, engineering brick, face brick, fire brick, gauged brick, salmon or chuff brick, backing brick and blue brick. Different types of brick arise from using different materials or firing processes.
Adobe bricks are large bricks made out of clay. They are traditionally made of clay mixed with straw and are placed in forms and dried in the sun.
Common brick is a brick that's not specially treated or textured. It's usually not made to be seen, as face brick would be. Engineering brick is a hard, strong and heavy brick made to resist infiltration by water or acid.
Clinker brick is a very hard, burned brick, while fire brick is a ceramic brick that resists high temperatures and is installed in fireplaces. Gauged brick is a brick whose dimensions are different from common bricks. Gauged bricks are fitted into the arches and also called voussoir.
Salmon brick is a soft, pinkish brick that's been underfired. Backing brick is a cheap brick that's used behind face brick or other masonry like cinderblocks.
Blue brick is a very strong brick. The blue color comes from being fired in a kiln with a flame with a low oxygen content. Concrete bricks are strong and often installed for aesthetic reasons.