Emmanuel Goldstein is a character in the novel "Nineteen Eighty-Four" by George Orwell. Goldstein breaks away from the Inner Party and starts "The Brotherhood." Members are required to read Goldstein's book, "The Theory and Practice of Oligarchical Collectivism," which was simply called "The Book".
The people of Oceania are subjected to an oppressive, single-party regime. Goldstein, who was a former member of the Inner Party, becomes the principal enemy of the state as he is constantly conspiring to overthrow their leadership. He was also an associate of "Big Brother," the leader of the Inner Party. Goldstein was shown on a television screen every day at 11:00 a.m. on what was called "Two Minutes' Hate."
It is unclear whether Goldstein or "The Brotherhood" really existed or was simply created by the Inner Party to justify their constant surveillance and disregard for civil liberties. Goldstein was also used as a means to channel the anger, hate and frustration of the people of Oceania.
Winston Smith, the main character of the story, gets arrested by the Thought Police before he can finish reading "The Book." When he asks O'Brien, an Inner Party member, if Goldstein and his party exist, he doesn't get a straightforward answer.