To come up with book club discussion questions, read the portion of the book set aside for the next meeting and take notes about content, location, time period, themes and characters. Form questions that allow for discussion of members' observations of each of these topics, such as whether the story is realistic or if it inspires emotion.
Research the historical context in which the author wrote the novel. If you find relevant information, incorporate it into the questions. For example, if the novel was written during World War II, ask the club members how the book reflected it in the voice, plot or characters. If the information is not relevant to the novel, ask questions about how the book's time period setting was reflected throughout the story.
Center major discussions and questions around the themes and motifs of the book. For example, if there is an underlying theme about dealing with loss, ask the club members questions about what was lost, who was affected and how the characters responded. Ask questions about the characters themselves, such as if they were likable or the kind of impact they had on the main story line. If discussing the ending of a book, ask questions about whether the conclusion was definitive or what the ending meant in the scope of the whole story.