On This Day: November 19
This is the 323rd day of the year.
Fact of the Day: space
Space is a cold, airless vacuum. There is not much dust or gas in space that could trap and hold the heat from the stars. Their heat, in the form of radiation, keeps on traveling until it hits something big enough to absorb the heat - like the planets and moons. The temperature in space is absolute zero, possibly as low as - 459 degrees Fahrenheit (-273 degrees Celsius).
Feast day of St. Ermenburga, St. Barlaam of Antioch, and St. Nerses I.
Monaco: National Day.
Belize: Garifuna Day.
Puerto Rico: Discovery Day.
1493 - Christopher Columbus discovered Puerto Rico on his second voyage to the New World.
1620 - The Mayflower arrived off the coast of Cape Cod. Peregrine White was born aboard the Mayflower.
1794 - United States and Britain signed the Jay Treaty.
1861 - Julia Ward Howe wrote "The Battle Hymn of the Republic" while visiting Union troops near Washington.
1863 - President Abraham Lincoln delivered the Gettysburg Address and dedicated a Civil War battlefield cemetery in Pennsylvania.
1874 - The Women's Christian Temperance Union was organized in Cleveland, Ohio.
1919 - Utah's Mukuntuweap National Monument, later called Zion National Monument, was established as a national park.
1939 - The first presidential library, that of Franklin D. Roosevelt, had its cornerstone laid at Hyde Park, New York.
1942 - The Soviet Union Red Army launched Operation Uranus, the great counter-offensive that turned the tide of the Battle of Stalingrad.
1949 - Monaco held a coronation for its new ruler, Prince Rainier III, the 30th monarch of Monaco.
1954 - The first automatic toll collection machine went into effect at the Union Toll Plaza on New Jersey's Garden State Parkway.
1969 - Ford Motor Company announced it was halting production of the unpopular Edsel.
1969 - Pele scored his 1000th soccer goal in his 909th first-class match.
1969 - U.S. astronauts Charles Conrad, Jr. and Alan Bean became the third and fourth humans to walk on the surface of the Moon after their landing module, Intrepid, touched down as part of the Apollo 12 mission.
1976 - Patty Hearst was released from prison on $1.5 million bail.
1977 - Egyptian President Anwar el-Sadat became the first Arab leader to visit Israel.
1985 - At a summit in Geneva, President Ronald Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev met for the first time.
1990 - The pop duo Milli Vanilli was stripped of its Grammy Award because other singers sung the songs on their "Girl You Know It's True" album.
1993 - The U.S. Senate voted in favor of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
1996 - A fire broke out in the Channel Tunnel, injuring 34 people and interrupting rail service.
1998 - Independent Counsel Kenneth Starr presented evidence against President Bill Clinton while testifying before the House Judiciary Committee.
1600 - Charles I, King of England and Scotland.
1752 - George Rogers Clark, American soldier and frontiersman.
1797 - Sojourner Truth, American abolitionist and women's rights advocate.
1805 - Ferdinand de Lesseps, French engineer.
1831 - James Garfield, 20th President of the United States of America, who became the second U.S. president (after Abraham Lincoln) to be assassinated.
1905 - Tommy Dorsey, American bandleader and musician.
1917 - Indira Gandhi (Nehru), Prime Minister of India (1966-77, 1980-84).
1921 - Roy Campanella, one of the first black major league baseball players.
1933 - Larry King, American TV, radio host, columnist.
1938 - Ted Turner, American cable TV mogul.
1997 - The first septuplets delivered alive were born in Des Moines, Iowa, to Bobbi and Kenny McCaughey.
1883 - William Siemens, English electrical engineer and metallurgist, born in Lenthe, Germany.
1988 - Christina Onassis, shipping heiress and daughter of Aristotle Onassis.