On This Day: November 1
This is the 305th day of the year.
Fact of the Day: Pacific islands
New Guinea, the second largest island in the world, accounts for 70% and New Zealand is 20% of the total land area of the Pacific Islands; 10,000 scattered islands make up the other 10%.
Algeria: National Day/Revolution Anniversary.
Feast day of All Saints (All Saints' Day or All Hallows Day), St. Benignus of Dijon, Saints Caesarius and Julian, St. Austremonius or Stremoine, St. Cadfan, St. Mary, martyr, St. Vigor, St. Marcellus of Paris, and Saint Mathurin or Maturinus.
Antigua and Barbuda: Independence Day (from Great Britain, 1981).
Mexico: start of Dias de los Muertos or Days of the Dead.
Virgin Islands of the United States: Liberty Day.
79 - Pompeii was buried by eruption of Mt. Vesuvius.
1512 - Michelangelo's painting on the Sistine Chapel ceiling was exhibited for the first time.
1604 - William Shakespeare's play "Othello" was first presented, in London at Whitehall Palace.
1611 - William Shakespeare's play "The Tempest" was first presented, in London at Whitehall Palace.
1755 - An earthquake destroyed two-thirds of Lisbon, killing 60,000 people.
1765 - The Stamp Act went into effect, in the face of widespread opposition by the American colonists.
1788 - The U.S. Continental Congress closed.
1848 - The first American medical school for women opened in Boston, the Boston Female Medical School; it eventually (1874) merged with Boston University School of Medicine.
1864 - The U.S. Post Office introduced the money order.
1870 - The U.S. Weather Bureau made its first meteorological observations, using telegraphed reports from 24 stations.
1884 - The International Meridian Conference set up time zones for the world and adopted a treaty making Greenwich, England, the Prime Meridian.
1897 - The first Library of Congress building opened its doors to the public; it had previously been housed in the Congressional Reading Room of the United States Capitol building.
1918 - The Hapsburg monarchy came to an end and two separate republics were proclaimed: the Hungarian Republic and the Austrian Republic.
1936 - During a speech, Italy's Fascist leader Benito Mussolini described the new alliance between Nazi Germany and his country as an "axis" running between Berlin and Rome. The Axis became the name for this pact between Germany and Italy. Japan joined them in 1940.
1950 - Two Puerto Rican nationalists tried to assassinate President Harry Truman when he was living at the Blair-Lee Mansion during structural repairs on the White House. The attempt failed; one of the attackers and a policeman were killed.
1952 - The United States detonated the first hydrogen bomb, in a test at the Enewatek Atoll in the Marshall Islands.
1954 - Algeria rebelled against French rule.
1967 - The first issue of "Rolling Stone" magazine was published.
1973 - Acting Attorney General Robert H. Bork appointed Leon Jaworski to be the new Watergate special prosecutor, succeeding Archibald Cox after the "Saturday Night Massacre."
1984 - Rajiv Gandhi, son of Indira Gandhi, was sworn in as prime minister of India.
1989 - East Germany reopened its border with Czechoslovakia and thousands of refugees to fled to the West.
1993 - The Maastricht Treaty came into effect, formally establishing the European Union. Great Britain, France, Germany, the Irish Republic, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Greece, Denmark, Luxembourg, Belgium, and the Netherlands agreed to work together on economic integration, common foreign and security policies, and cooperation between police and other authorities on crime, terrorism, and immigration issues.
1995 - Bosnia peace talks opened in Dayton, Ohio, with the leaders of Bosnia, Serbia, and Croatia taking part.
1871 - Stephen Crane, American novelist and poet.
1880 - Grantland Rice, American columnist.
1935 - Gary Player, South African golfer.
1962 - Anthony Kiedis, American singer for the Red Hot Chili Peppers.
1972 - Jenny McCarthy, American model, actress.
1955 - Dale Carnegie, American lecturer and writer on self-improvement.
1979 - Mamie Eisenhower, American first lady and the wife of President Dwight D. Eisenhower.
1985 - Phil Silvers, American comedian and actor.
1999 - Walter Payton, American football player.
2000 - Sir Stephen Runciman, British historian known for his work on the Middle Ages.