On This Day: November 8
This is the 312th day of the year.
Fact of the Day: punctuation
Punctuation is the conventional practice of "pointing" a writing composition to divide it into sentences and portions of sentences - thus indicating what would in speech be pauses or changes of expression (Latin punctum/punctus "point").
Feast day of the Four Crowned Martyrs, St. Cuby or Cybi, St. Godfrey of Amiens, St. Deusdedit, St. Willehad, and St. Tysilio or Suliau.
1685 - Fredrick William of Brandenburg issued the Edict of Potsdam, offering refuge to the Huguenots.
1793 - The Louvre opened as a museum in Paris, though only part of the collection could be viewed.
1805 - Meriwether Lewis and William Clark reached the Pacific coast after setting out from St. Louis over a year earlier.
1837 - Mount Holyoke Seminary, a women's college, opened in South Hadley, Massachusetts.
1889 - Montana became the 41st state.
1895 - William Röntgen discovered X-rays during an experiment at the University of Wurzburg.
1923 - Adolf Hitler made his first attempt at seizing power with a failed coup in Munich, Germany, the "Beer-Hall Putsch."
1932 - New York governor Franklin D. Roosevelt won his first term as the 32nd President of the United States of America by defeating incumbent Herbert Hoover.
1933 - President Franklin Roosevelt created the Civil Works Administration, to create jobs for the more than four million unemployed.
1938 - Crystal Bird Fauset of Pennsylvania became the first African-American woman to be elected to a state legislature.
1942 - Under General Dwight Eisenhower's command, British and U.S. forces invaded North Africa in "Operation Torch."
1960 - Massachusetts Senator John F. Kennedy (D) defeated Republican Vice President Richard M. Nixon to become the 35th President of the United States of America.
1988 - Republican Vice President George Bush defeated Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis for the 41st Presidency of the United States of America.
1994 - In Oregon, "Measure 16," which permitted euthanasia in regulated circumstances for the terminally ill, was voted in.
1994 - Republicans gained control of the U.S. House of Representatives for the first time in 40 years and won a majority in the Senate in midterm elections.
1997 - Chinese engineers diverted the Yangtze River to make way for the Three Gorges Dam.
2004 - Thousands of allied troops attacked the toughest strongholds of Sunni insurgents in Fallujah, Iraq, aimed at putting an end to guerrilla control of the city.
2006 - Microsoft releases Windows Vista.
1656 - Edmund Halley, British astronomer and mathematician.
1847 - Bram Stoker, English writer, best known for "Dracula."
1884 - Hermann Rorshach, Swiss psychiatrist, inventor of the inkblot test (Rorshach Test).
1900 - Margaret Mitchell, American Pulitzer Prize-winning author.
1922 - Christiaan Barnard, South African heart transplant pioneer.
1931 - Morley Safer, reporter and correspondent for CBS News.
1949 - Bonnie Raitt, American blues/R&B singer, songwriter, and guitarist.
1967 - Courtney Thorne-Smith, American actress.
1975 - Tara Reid, Wyckoff, New Jersey-born actress.
1985 - Jack Osbourne, son of music legend Ozzy Osbourne.
1674 - John Milton, English poet.
1978 - Norman Rockwell, American painter and illustrator.
1994 - Michael O'Donoghue, American writer.
1999 - Lester Bowie, American jazz trumpet player and composer.
2005 - Alekos Alexandrakis, Greek actor, known for his theatrical work as well as work in film and television.