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zoological garden

zoological garden

zoological garden or zoo, public or private park where living animals are kept for exhibition and study. The menageries and aviaries of China, Egypt, and Rome were famous in ancient times. From the late medieval period many rulers had private menageries, some of which later formed the nucleus of public exhibits. Nearly all large cities now have zoological reserves. Notable ones include those of London (Regent's Park), Paris (Jardin des Plantes and Jardin d'Acclimatation, Bois de Boulogne), Berlin (Tiergarten), Toronto (Metro), New York City (Bronx), Chicago (Lincoln Park and Brookfield), Cincinnati, Detroit, Philadelphia, St. Louis, and San Diego (Balboa Park). Modern trends include breeding endangered animals in captivity (some have been reintroduced into the wild), exhibiting animals in enclosures simulating their natural habitat rather than in cages (open-range zones or safari parks), and educating the public about the principles of ecology.
The Berlin Zoological Garden (Zoologischer Garten Berlin) is the oldest and internationally most well known zoo in Germany. Opened in 1844 it comprises an area of 35 hectares and is located in Berlin, Tiergarten. With almost 1,400 different species and around 14,000 animals the zoo presents the most comprehensive collection of species in the world.

The zoo and its aquarium numbered 3,2 million visitors in 2007. It is considered to be the most visited zoo in Europe and one of the most popular worldwide. Regular animal feedings are among its most famous attractions. Several globally known animals like Knut, the polar bear or Bao Bao, the Giant Panda are contributing to the zoo's public image.

The zoo is closely collaborating on scientific fields with a large number of universities, research institutes, and other zoos around the world. It maintains and promotes numerous European breeding programmes and safeguards several endangered species. A number of species kept at the zoo are regularly returned to the wild after years in intensive human care.

History

Opened on August 1, 1844 the Zoologischer Garten Berlin was the first zoo in Germany. The aquarium opened 1913. The early animals were donated by Frederick William IV, King of Prussia, from the menagerie and pheasantry of the Tiergarten. By the end of the war, the zoo area was completely destroyed and only 91 of 12,000 animals survived. Following their destruction during the Second World War, the zoo and the associated Aquarium have been reconstructed on the most modern principles so as to display the animals in their natural environment. The success achieved in breeding animals, including some rare species, demonstrates the efficiency of the new methods.

In 2009 the zoo starts a cooperation with the Great Berlin Wheel, a 185 m Ferris wheel erected next to the entrance and at close proximity to the zoo´s metro station.

Zoo

Group Species Animals
Mammals 188 1.149
Birds 408 2.680
Reptiles 77 434
Amphibians 45 422
Fish 392 3.747
Invertebrates 278 5.290
Total (2007) 1.388 13.722
The Berlin Zoo is the most visited zoo in Europe with approximately 3.0 million annual visitors from all over the world. It is open all year long and can easily be reached by public transportation. The Berlin Zoologischer Garten railway station (also simply known as Zoo) is one of Berlin's most important stations. Several modes of transport such as U-Bahn, S-Bahn and buses are interlinked here. Visitors can either enter the zoo through the exotically designed Elephant Gate beside the aquarium on Budapester Straße or through the Lion Gate on Hardenbergplatz.

A breeding function of the zoo is its program maintaining the studbooks for white and black rhinoceroses and gaurs. The populations of rare deer and pigs are part of several captive breeding projects. Berlin Zoo supports conservationists e.g. at Madagascar and as a partner of the Stiftung Artenschutz. Almost all of the animals are housed in enclosures that are specially designed to recreate their natural habitat.

The carnivore house displays all big cats and many rare small predators, such as ring- tailed mungos and narrow-striped mongooses from Madagascar. In the basement, visitors are invited to a view into the world of nocturnal animals.

The bird house presents a walk-through aviary and offers a broad variety of forms, including several regularly breeding species of hornbills and many parrots. Numerous big aviaries show waders, herons and many other species. The Berlin zoo is one of the few zoos to exhibit Tuatara and Luzon tarictic hornbills.

Aquarium

The Aquarium, which was built in 1913 as part of the Zoologischer Garten complex, is a zoo in itself. Since its opening the Zoo-Aquarium has been ranked among the public aquariums with the world’s greatest biodiversity. On either a separate or joint ticket it can be visited with the zoo.

Over 9.000 animals are presented on three storeys. It contains a famous jellyfish breeding, tropical and native fishes, crocodiles and broad variety of insects. In addition to its 250 fish tanks, the Aquarium houses a wide variety of amphibians and reptiles including the Komodo dragon.

The shark tank presents the blacktip reef shark. The chondrichthians, or cartilaginous fishes, are an ancient class of animal that includes both the sharks and the rays.

With a total capacity of 25,000 litres twelve basins present different sections through the world of corals. The largest of these basins is the 11 m3 Great Coral Basin with its reproduction lagoon.

Animals

Several new born animals in the Berlin zoo have raised national and international interest, some of them even raised to celebrity status.

Knut is a polar bear who was born in captivity at the Zoo on 5 December 2006. Rejected by his mother at birth, he was subsequently raised by zookeepers. Knut became the center of a mass media phenomenon dubbed "Knutmania" that spanned the globe and quickly spawned numerous toys, media specials, DVDs, and books. Because of this, the cub was largely responsible for a significant increase in revenue, estimated at about five million euros, at the Berlin Zoo in 2007. Zoo attendance figures for the year increased by an estimated 30 percent making it the most profitable year in its 163-year history.

Bao Bao (* 1978) is a male Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). He is the only Giant Panda in a German zoo and the eldest known Giant Panda in a zoo worldwide. Like many of his kind, he is on a permanent loan from China for breeding purposes. In spite of several artificial inseminations of female ‚Yan Yan’, there has been no offspring yet.

References

External links

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