Young, Andrew Jackson, Jr., 1932-, African-American leader, clergyman, and public official, b. New Orleans. He was a leading civil-rights activist in the 1960s and, as a Democrat from Georgia, served (1973-77) in the U.S. House of Representatives. Under President Carter, Young was permanent representative to the UN (1977-79) and was noted for his outspokenness. He served as mayor of Atlanta (1982-90) and ran for, but failed to win, the Democratic nomination for governor of Georgia in 1990. In 1999 he was elected to a two-year term as head of the National Council of Churches.

See his autobiography (1994).

Young, Arthur, 1741-1820, English agriculturist. His writings hastened the progress of scientific farming. He traveled widely, always observing techniques of farming. In 1784, Young founded the periodical Annals of Agriculture and edited it through 1808. Among his other works are three accounts of tours in England (1768-71) and Travels during the Years 1787, 1788, 1789, and 1790 (1792-94).

See his autobiography (1898); biography by J. G. Gazley (1973).

Young, Brigham, 1801-77, American religious leader, early head of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, b. Whitingham, Vt. Brigham Young was perhaps the greatest molder of Mormonism, his influence having a greater effect even than that of the church's founder, Joseph Smith, in shaping the Mormon faith as it exists today (see Latter-Day Saints, Church of Jesus Christ of).

Early Life

He was a painter and glazier in Mendon, Monroe co., N.Y., when he was first attracted to the new religion. Baptized as an adult in 1832, he led a group to the Mormon community at Kirtland, Ohio, and in 1835 became one of the Council of Twelve (the Apostles). When the Mormons were persecuted in their Missouri Zion in the late 1830s, Young was one of the few Mormon leaders not placed under arrest, and his abilities as an organizer came to the fore. He was one of the chief figures in the move to Nauvoo, Ill. Sent as missionary to England, he started a community that eventually brought approximately 40,000 émigrés to the United States between 1841 and 1870.

Mormon Leader

After Joseph Smith's assassination (1844), Young was the chief factor in maintaining the unity of the church in the Council of Twelve. From that time forward, he served as the Mormons' spiritual leader. He led the great migration west in 1846-47 and was the director of the settlement at Salt Lake City. He exercised supreme control in the communal theocracy of Mormonism, and his genius, as much as anything else, led to the phenomenal growth of a prosperous community. After the creation of Utah's provisional government, he was also made territorial governor and superintendent of Indian affairs.

When the Mormon practice of polygamy and a more general fear and hatred of Mormon power led to hostilities between the United States and the Mormons, Young defended Mormon interests, particularly during the military expedition against the Mormons called the Utah War (1857-58). He lost his post as governor, but through his able statesmanship, he avoided a real break with the United States. In his old age, he was arrested on charges of polygamy and murder, but he was acquitted and his influence increased rather than diminished until his death.

The exact number of his wives—still a contested figure—and the extent of his fortune were the objects of curiosity and idle rumor nationwide. Accusations of sensuality leveled against him by people who were ignorant of the basic principles of Mormon doctrine were not justified. The most serious charge that can be brought against him is that of condoning the massacre at Mountain Meadows. He did not instigate that crime, but it seems probable that he did protect its perpetrators.


See Susa Young Gates (his daughter) and L. E. Widtsoe, The Life Story of Brigham Young (1930); C. Stott, Search For Sanctuary (1984); L. J. Arrington, Brigham Young (1985); N. G. Bringhurst, Brigham Young (1986).

Young, Charles Augustus, 1834-1908, American astronomer, b. Hanover, N.H., grad. Dartmouth, 1853. He discovered the reversing layer of the solar atmosphere and proved the gaseous nature of the sun's corona. He was a pioneer in the study of the spectrum of the sun and experimented in photographing solar prominences in full sunlight. He was professor (1857-66) of astronomy, natural philosophy, and mathematics at Western Reserve College (now Case Western Reserve Univ.), professor of astronomy and natural philosophy at Dartmouth College (1866-77), and professor of astronomy at Princeton (1877-1905). His works include The Sun (1881, rev. ed. 1896), Lessons in Astronomy (1891, rev. ed. 1918), and The Elements of Astronomy (1890, rev. ed. 1919).
Young, Cy (Denton T. Young), 1867-1955, American baseball player, b. Gilmore, Ohio. He played with the Canton (Ohio) club of the Tri-State League before he pitched (1890-98) for the Cleveland Spiders in the National League. He later pitched for the St. Louis Cardinals (1899-1900) of the National League, the Boston Red Sox and its predecessor teams the Somersets and the Puritans (1901-8) of the American League, the Cleveland Naps (1909-11; now the Indians) of the American League, and the Boston Pilgrims (1911; later the Braves) of the National League. In 22 years of major league baseball he pitched in 906 games. Young, known for his excellent control and his ability to outwit batters, still holds the record for winning the most games (511), including 76 shutouts, and pitched three no-hit games. In 1904 he pitched the American League's first perfect game—no opposing batter reaching first base. He retired from active play at the age of 44 and was elected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame in 1937. The Cy Young Award has been given each year since 1967 to the best pitcher in each major league; from 1956 to 1966 one award was given for both leagues.
Young, Edward, 1683-1765, English poet and dramatist. After a disappointing political life he took holy orders about 1724, serving for a time as the royal chaplain before becoming rector of Welwyn in 1730. He achieved great renown in his own time, both in England and on the Continent, for his long poem The Complaint, or Night Thoughts on Life, Death, and Immortality (1742-45), a Christian apologetic inspired by the deaths of his wife, stepdaughter, and the latter's husband. Besides writing a series of satires, The Universal Passion (1725-28), he was the author of three bombastic tragedies, Busiris (1719), The Revenge (1721), and The Brothers (1753). His last important work was his prose Conjectures on Original Composition (1759).

See his correspondence, ed. by H. Pettit (1972); biography by I. S. Bliss (1969); H. Forster, Edward Young: Poet of the Night Thoughts (1986).

Young, Ella Flagg, 1845-1918, American educator, b. Buffalo, N.Y. She was identified with the Chicago public school system for 53 years, as teacher, principal, and superintendent of schools (1909-15). From 1899 to 1905 she was professor of education at the Univ. of Chicago and from 1905 to 1909 principal of the Chicago Normal School (later Chicago Teachers College). She was a leader in woman-suffrage work, first woman president (1910-11) of the National Education Association, and author of monographs setting forth educational theories developed with John Dewey. She collaborated with Jane Addams in social work.

See J. T. McManis, Ella Flagg Young and a Half-Century of the Chicago Public Schools (1916).

Young, Geoffrey Winthrop, 1876-1958, English writer, an authority on mountaineering. He was educated at Cambridge and later studied in Switzerland and France. Before 1914 he made an impressive record of new and difficult ascents in the Alps. In World War I he commanded British ambulance units in Belgium, France, and Italy and was several times decorated. Though he lost a leg, he continued mountain climbing. He wrote Mountain Craft (1920, 7th ed. 1949). He also wrote poetry.

See his autobiography, On High Hills (1927), and The Grace of Forgetting (1953).

Young, John Russell, 1840-99, American journalist, b. Ireland. He started his newspaper career with the Philadelphia Press and by 1862 was its managing editor. From 1866 to 1869 he was managing editor of the New York Tribune. Young was sent abroad in the 1870s on missions for the government and for the New York Herald. He reported one of his trips in Around the World with General Grant (1879). Later he was minister to China (1882-85), and he played an important role in the negotiations that resulted in the French protectorate over Indochina. In 1897 he was made Librarian of Congress.

See his Men and Memories (1901).

Young, John Watts, 1930-, American astronaut, b. San Francisco. Young served as pilot of Gemini 3 (Mar. 23, 1965), command pilot of Gemini 10 (July 18-21, 1966), command-module pilot of the Apollo 10 lunar-orbit mission (May 18-26, 1969), and commander of the Apollo 16 lunar-landing mission (Apr. 16-27, 1972), during which he became the ninth person to walk on the moon. When he commanded the first orbital test flight of the space shuttle Columbia (Apr. 12-14, 1981), he set a record for the greatest number of orbital spaceflights (five) by an individual. He then went on to break his record by commanding another orbital flight of the Columbia (Nov. 28-Dec. 8, 1983).
Young, Lester Willis, 1909-59, American jazz musician, b. Woodville, Miss. He played the tenor saxophone with various bands (1929-40), including those of Fletcher Henderson and Count Basie, with whom he first recorded in 1936. Young and Coleman Hawkins are considered the major influences on tenor-saxophone playing, and Young's style was important in the development of progressive, or cool, jazz, which arose in the late 1940s. He won several jazz polls and made a number of records, including a series with Billie Holiday, who gave him his nickname, "President," later shortened to "Pres" or "Prez."

See biography by D. Gelly (2007).

Young, Mahonri Mackintosh, 1877-1957, American sculptor, painter, and etcher, b. Salt Lake City, studied at the Art Students League and at Julian's Academy, Paris; grandson of Brigham Young. His statuettes of laborers, cowboys, and prizefighters and his larger works show strength and simplicity and fine workmanship. In the Metropolitan Museum are the bronzes Stevedore and Man with Pick. He also made the Sea Gull Monument in Salt Lake City, Utah, and a statue of Brigham Young for the Capitol rotunda in Washington, D.C.
Young, Thomas, 1773-1829, English physicist, physician, and Egyptologist. He established (1799) a medical practice in London and was elected (1811) to the staff of St. George's Hospital there. His lectures while professor of natural philosophy (1801-3) at the Royal Institution, London, published as A Course of Lectures on Natural Philosophy and the Mechanical Arts (1807), introduced the modern physical concept of energy. An authority on the mechanism of vision and on optics, he stated (1807) a theory of color vision now known as the Young-Helmholtz theory, studied the structure of the eye, and described the defect called astigmatism. He is especially noted for reviving the wave theory of light as opposed to the corpuscular theory, advancing as proof a demonstration based upon the principle of interference of light, which he first formulated in 1801. He applied (1809) the wave theory to refraction and dispersion phenomena. Young's versatility is evidenced by his contributions to the theory of tides, his participation in the deciphering of the Rosetta Stone (see under Rosetta), which provided a key to understanding Egyptian hieroglyphic writings, his explanation (1804) of capillarity (independently set forth by Laplace in 1805), and his establishment of a coefficient of elasticity, Young's modulus.

See biographies by H. B. Williams (1930) and A. Wood (1954).

Young is a census-designated place (CDP) in Gila County, Arizona, United States. The population was 561 at the 2000 census.


Young is located at (34.111688, -110.929208).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 42.0 square miles (108.8 km²), all of it land.


Young played a central part in the Pleasant Valley War between 1887 and 1897. In September 1887, Sheriff Mulvernon of Prescott, Arizona led a posse that pursued and killed John Graham and Charles Blevins during a shootout at "Perkins Store".


As of the census of 2000, there were 561 people, 250 households, and 171 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 13.4 people per square mile (5.2/km²). There were 446 housing units at an average density of 10.6/sq mi (4.1/km²). The racial makeup of the CDP was 96.08% White, 0.53% Native American, 0.36% Asian, 2.14% from other races, and 0.89% from two or more races. 3.39% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 250 households out of which 19.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.0% were married couples living together, 4.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.6% were non-families. 29.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.24 and the average family size was 2.71.

In the CDP the population was spread out with 21.6% under the age of 18, 3.0% from 18 to 24, 20.7% from 25 to 44, 33.7% from 45 to 64, and 21.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 48 years. For every 100 females there were 115.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 108.5 males.

The median income for a household in the CDP was $22,578, and the median income for a family was $26,438. Males had a median income of $32,500 versus $25,313 for females. The per capita income for the CDP was $12,177. About 16.8% of families and 20.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.4% of those under age 18 and 7.1% of those age 65 or over.


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