Definitions

yoit

Siberian Yupik language

Siberian Yupik (also known as Central Siberian Yupik, Bering Strait Yupik, Yuit, Yoit, or Yuk) is the language of the Siberian Yupik people, an indigenous people who reside along the coast of the Chukchi Peninsula in the Russian Far East and on St. Lawrence Island in the Alaska villages of Savoonga and Gambell. Siberian Yupik is a Yupik language of the Eskimo-Aleut family of languages.

In Alaska, about 1,050 of a total Siberian Yupik population of 1,100 speak the language. In Russia, about 300 of an ethnic population of 1,200 to 1,500 speak the language, for a total of about 1,350 speakers.

Subgroups

Chaplinski (the largest Yupik language of Siberia, the second one being Naukanski), or Ungazighmiistun, is named after Ungazik (Novoe Chaplino), a toponym. The word [uŋaʑiʁmi] (plural [uŋaʑiʁmit]) means "Ungazik inhabitant(s)". People speaking this language live in several settlements in south-eastern parts of Chukchi Peninsula (among others Provideniya, Uelkal, Sireniki), also on Wrangel Island and Anadyr city, Novoye Chaplino. According to another terminology, these people speak Chaplinski, and Ungazigmit people speak one of its dialects, alongside with other dialects spoken by Avatmit, Imtugmit, Kigwagmit — and these can be divided further into even smaller dialects.

Naukanski, or Nuvuqaghmiistun, the second largest Yupik language spoken in Siberia, is spoken in settlements Uelen, Lorino, Lavrentiya, Provideniya.

Debated classifications

Also Sireniki Eskimo language, locally called Uqeghllistun, was an Eskimo language, once spoken in Siberia. It had many peculiarities. Sometimes it is classified as not belonging to the Yupik branch at all, thus forming (in itself) a standalone third branch of Eskimo languages (alongside with Inuit and Yupik). Its peculiarities may be the result of a supposed long isolation from other Eskimo goups in the past.

Sireniki went extinct in early January 1997.

References

Latin

  • Menovščikov, G. A. (= Г. А. Меновщиков) (1968). Popular beliefs and folklore tradition in Siberia. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó.
  • de Reuse, Willem J. (1994). Siberian Yupik Eskimo: The language and its contacts with Chukchi. Studies in indigenous languages of the Americas. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press. ISBN 0-87480-397-7.

Cyrillic

Notes

References

  • Menovshchikov, G.A.: Language of Sireniki Eskimos. Phonetics, morphology, texts and vocabulary. Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Moscow • Leningrad, 1964. Original data: Г.А. Меновщиков: Язык сиреникских эскимосов. Фонетика, очерк морфологии, тексты и словарь. Академия Наук СССР. Институт языкознания. Москва • Ленинград, 1964
  • Menovshchikov, G.A.: Grammar of the language of Asian Eskimos. Vol. I. Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Moscow • Leningrad, 1962. Original data: Г.А. Меновщиков: Грамматиκа языка азиатских эскимосов. Часть первая. Академия Наук СССР. Москва • Ленинград, 1962.
  • Rubcova, E. S. (1954). Materials on the Language and Folklore of the Eskimos (Vol. I, Chaplino Dialect). Moscow • Leningrad: Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Original data: Рубцова, Е. С. (1954). Материалы по языку и фольклору эскимосов (чаплинский диалект). Москва • Ленинград: Академия Наук СССР.

Further reading

  • Badten, Linda Womkon, Vera Oovi Kaneshiro, Marie Oovi, and Steven A. Jacobson. A Dictionary of the St. Lawrence Island/Siberian Yupik Eskimo Language. Fairbanks: Alaska Native Language Center, College of Liberal Arts, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, 1987. ISBN 1555000290
  • Bass, Willard P., Edward A. Tennant, and Sharon Pungowiyi Satre. Test of Oral Language Dominance Siberian Yupik-English. Albuquerque, N.M.: Southwest Research Associates, 1973.
  • Jacobson, Steven A. A Practical Grammar of the St. Lawrence Island/Siberian Yupik Eskimo Language. Fairbanks: Alaska Native Language Center, College of Liberal Arts, University of Alaska, 1990. ISBN 1555000347
  • Jacobson, Steven A. Reading and Writing the Cyrillic System for Siberian Yupik = Atightuneqlu Iganeqlu Yupigestun Ruuseghmiit Latangitgun. Fairbanks: Alaska Native Language Center, College of Liberal Arts, University of Alaska, 1990.
  • Reuse, Willem Joseph de. Siberian Yupik Eskimo The Language and Its Contacts with Chukchi. Studies in indigenous languages of the Americas. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1994. ISBN 0874803977
  • Reuse, Willem Joseph de. Studies in Siberian Yupik Eskimo Morphology and Syntax. 1988.

External links

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