) is a rambling aromatic herb of western and northwestern North America
, ranging from maritime Alaska
southwards to Baja California Sur
. The plant takes the form of a sprawling, mat-forming perennial, and is especially abundant close to the coast.
The plant's most common name, the same in English and Spanish, is an alternate form of the Spanish hierba buena
(meaning "good herb"). The name was bestowed by pioneer Catholic
priests of Alta, California
as they settled an area where the plant is native. It was so abundant there that its name was also applied to the settler's town adjacent to Mission San Francisco de Asís
. In 1846, the town of Yerba Buena
was seized by the United States during the Mexican-American War
, and its name was changed in 1847 to San Francisco
, after a nearby mission. Three years later, the name was applied to a nearby rocky island; today millions of commuters drive through the tunnel on Yerba Buena Island
that connects the spans of the San Francisco – Oakland Bay Bridge
Other plants known as Yerba buena
In general, in most Spanish speaking countries, the term "yerba buena" refers to the particular local species of mint, which varies from region to region. The term has been (and is currently) used to cover a number of aromatic true mints
and mint relatives of the genera Satureja
. All plants so named have medicinal properties, and some have culinary value as teas or seasonings, as well.
The specific plant species regarded as "yerba buena" varies from region to region, depending on what grows wild in the surrounding landscape, or which species is customarily grown in local gardens. Perhaps the most common variation of this plant is the so called (besides Clinopodium douglasii) is spearmint, Mentha spicata.
In parts of Central America yerba buena often refers to Mentha citrata, a true mint sometimes called "bergamot mint" with a strong citrus-like aroma that is used medicinally and as a cooking herb and tea. In Cuba, yerba buena generally refers to Mentha nemorosa, a popular plant also known as large apple mint, foxtail mint, hairy mint, woolly mint or, simply, Cuban mint. In Puerto Rico a close relative of traditional culinary savory, Satureja viminea, is sometimes used. In Peru the name is sometimes applied to a shrubby aromatic marigold, Tagetes minuta also known as huacatay or "black mint"; in this case, despite some similarities of flavor, the herb in question is in the Sunflower family and is quite unrelated to any of the mints or mint-relatives with which it shares a name.