is a ridge or crease of a surface. It usually refers to folds on fabric
, or on the skin
of an organism; the folds are generally random and do not exhibit any repeating pattern. In skin or other foldable material a wrinkle or fold may be permanent if the material is folded the same way each time.
Skin wrinkles typically appear as a result of aging processes such as glycation or, temporarily, as the result of prolonged (more than a few minutes) immersion in water. Wrinkling in skin is caused by habitual facial expressions, aging, sun damage, smoking, poor hydration, and various other factors. With prolonged water exposure, the outer layer of skin starts to absorb water. The skin doesn't expand evenly, however, and this causes your skin to wrinkle. Depletion of water in the body, as occurs with dehydration, can also cause this puckering of the skin.
Smoking is a key factor in the development of wrinkles.. Smoking robs the complexion of oxygen, decreasing blood circulation to facial skin and resulting in premature lines and wrinkles. Also, anyone puffing on a cigarette is essentially doing a lot of repetitive facial movements that add even more wrinkles.
Treatments and products (including anti-aging creams) promising to reduce, remove, or prevent age-related wrinkles are big business in many industrialized countries. Despite great demand, most such products and treatments have not been proven to give lasting or major positive effects. Stretching the skin via a face lift will remove some wrinkles.
Although the exact mode of action of tretinoin is unknown, current evidence suggests that tretinoin decreases cohesiveness of follicular epithelial cells. Additionally, tretinoin stimulates mitotic activity and increased turnover of follicular epithelial cells.
Botulinum toxin is a neurotoxin protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Botox is manufactured by Allergan Inc (U.S.) for both therapeutic as well as cosmetic use. Besides its cosmetic application, Botox is used in the treatment of other conditions including migraine headache and cervical dystonia (spasmodic torticollis) (a neuromuscular disorder involving the head and neck)
Restylane is a non-animal, stabilized hyaluronic acid produced by Q-med in Sweden. The wrinkle- resolving gel is worldwide the most commonly used dermal filler since it was introduced in 1996. Particularly effective is it when used in a special injection technique; The Fern Pattern Technique. This technique was introduced by the Dutch cosmetic doctor Tom van Eijk in Sweden in 2005. The article on the subject was published in the Journal of Drugs in Dermatology, August 2007.
The wrinkles that occur in skin after prolonged exposure to water are sometimes referred to as pruney fingers
or water aging. This is a temporary skin
condition where the skin on the palms of the hand or feet becomes wrinkly. It is caused when the keratin
skin is immersed in water. The skin expands and the resultant larger surface area forces it to wrinkle. Usually the tips of the fingers and toes are the first to wrinkle because of a thicker layer of keratin and an absence of hairs which secrete the protective oil called sebum
. Wrinkled fingers often occur after taking a shower
and last up to fifteen minutes afterwards, until the water has evaporated or is absorbed into the body.
Prune fingers is named for the skins' resemblance to the wrinkled, rough surface of a prune.
Animals with wrinkles
Examples of wrinkles can be found in various animal species that grow loose, excess skin, particularly when they are young. Several breeds of dog
, such as the Pug
and the Shar Pei
, have been bred to exaggerate this trait. In dogs bred for fighting
, this is the result of selection for loose skin, which confers a protective advantage. Wrinkles are also associated with neoteny
), as they are a trait associated with juvenile animals.
Fabric wrinkles occur as a result of cloth being bunched or folded unevenly. Wrinkled clothing is often undesirable in situations such as job interviews
, or formal social events. There are products such as irons
and fabric sprays to remove wrinkles from cloth. Some more modern fabrics have been engineered to be wrinkle-free or wrinkle-resistant by incorporating water-resistant polymers