Morris, Wright (Wright Marion Morris), 1910-98, American writer, b. Central City, Nebr. He was for many years professor of English at San Francisco State College (now San Francisco State Univ.). His fiction treats the relationship of the burden of American history to the present, and the evolution and continuity of the American character. His novels include The World in the Attic (1949), Love among the Cannibals (1957), Fire Sermon (1971), and Plains Song (1980). The Territory Ahead (1958) is a study of American literary tradition, and About Fiction (1975) is a critical work. Morris was also a photographer, noted particularly for his images of the Great Plains and for his combinations of text and photographs.

See his memoirs Will's Boy (1981), Solo (1983), and A Cloak of Light (1985). See studies by L. Howard (1968) and G. B. Crump (1978).

Wright, Sir Almroth Edward, 1861-1947, British pathologist. He was professor of pathology (1892-1902) at the Army Medical School, Netley, and professor of experimental pathology, Univ. of London, and principal of the Institute of Pathology and Research (1902-46), St. Mary's Hospital, London. In 1906 he was knighted. An authority on vaccine therapy, he developed a system of antityphoid inoculation and a method of measuring protective substances in human blood (opsonins). His works include Pathology and Treatment of War Wounds (1942), Researches in Clinical Physiology (1943), and Studies on Immunization (2 vol., 1943-44).
Wright, Carroll Davidson, 1840-1909, American statistician, b. Dunbarton, N.H. His varied experience included a term (1872-73) in the Massachusetts senate. As U.S. commissioner of labor he organized the Bureau of Labor Statistics and stimulated objective research on labor problems. From 1902 until his death he was president of Clark College at Worcester, Mass. His books include The Industrial Evolution of the United States (1887) and Battles of Labor (1906).

See J. Leiby, Carroll Wright and Labor Reform: The Origin of Labor Statistics (1960).

Wright, Elizur, 1804-85, American actuary and antislavery leader, b. near Canaan, Conn., grad. Yale, 1826. He taught (1829-33) mathematics at Western Reserve College. In 1833 he became corresponding secretary of the American Anti-Slavery Society, a post he left (1839) to assume editorship of the Massachusetts Abolitionist. While editing (1846-52) the Boston Weekly Chronotype he became interested in life insurance reform and began lobbying in the Massachusetts legislature. Through his efforts an act was passed (1858) compelling insurance companies to hold reserve funds to be applied against policies. Two later rulings—the nonforfeiture law of 1861 forbidding a company to appropriate the reserve funds and the legislation (1880) that requires companies to pay in cash the value of lapsed policies—were also directly due to Wright. He served (1858-66) as state supervisor for insurance legislation before taking positions as a private actuary. His vigorous campaigning in this field as well as his development of actuarial tabulations earned him the title "father of life insurance."

See biography by P. G. Wright and E. Q. Wright (1937).

Wright, Frances (Fanny Wright), 1795-1852, Scottish-American reformer, later known as Mme Darusmont, b. Dundee, Scotland. After her first tour (1818-20) of the United States she wrote an enthusiastic account of her travels, Views of Society and Manners in America (1821). In 1824 she returned to the United States. Influenced by Robert Dale Owen, she founded Nashoba, a colony for free blacks, near Memphis, Tenn. After its failure she devoted herself to lecturing and publishing. She advocated equal rights for women, universal education, religious freedom, abolition, and birth control. In 1831 she married William P. Darusmont (or D'Arusmont); the marriage was dissolved in 1835.

See biographies by W. R. Waterman (1924) and A. J. G. Perkins and T. Wolfson (1939).

Wright, Frank Lloyd, 1867-1959, American architect, b. Richland Center, Wis. Wright is widely considered the greatest American architect. After studying civil engineering at the Univ. of Wisconsin, he worked for seven years in the office of Dankmar Adler and Louis H. Sullivan in Chicago.

The Prairie Style

Wright's first independent commission was the Winslow residence (1893) in River Forest, Ill. Establishing himself in Oak Park, Ill., he built a series of residences with low horizontal lines and strongly projecting eaves that echoed the rhythms of the surrounding landscape; it was termed his prairie style. The most famous examples are located in Chicago and its suburbs; they include the Willitts house (1900?-1902), Highland Park; the Coonley house (1908), Riverside; and the Robie house (1909), Chicago.

Innovative Techniques and Styles

From the beginning Wright practiced radical innovation both as to structure and aesthetics, and many of his methods have since become internationally current. At a time when poured reinforced concrete and steel cantilevers were generally confined to commercial structures, Wright did pioneer work in integrating machine methods and materials into a true architectural expression. He was the first architect in the United States to produce open planning in houses, in a break from the traditional closed volume, and to achieve a fluidity of interior space by his frequent elimination of confining walls between rooms. For the Millard house (1923) at Pasadena, Calif., he worked out a new method, known as textile-block slab construction, consisting of double walls of precast concrete blocks tied together with steel reinforcing rods set into both the vertical and the horizontal joints.

Important Works

The Larkin Office Building (1904; destroyed 1950), Buffalo, and Oak Park Unity Temple (1908), near Chicago, were early monumental works that exerted wide influence. Among other notable works are the Imperial Hotel (1916-22; demolished 1968; partially reconstructed, Meiji Mura Mus., Inuyama, Japan), Tokyo, Japan, which withstood the effects of the 1923 earthquake; the Midway Gardens (1914; destroyed 1923), Chicago; and Wright's own residence "Taliesin" (1911; twice burned and rebuilt) at Spring Green, Wis. Among his later projects were "Taliesin West" (1936-59), Scottsdale, Ariz. (which has continued since his death as a school of architecture); the Johnson administration building (1936-39; research tower, 1950), Racine Wis.; and the house for Edgar Kaufmann, "Fallingwater" (1936-37), Bear Run, Pa., which is dramatically cantilevered over a waterfall.

After World War II, Wright continued a large and ever-inventive practice until his death. He created dynamic interior spaces with spiral ramps for the V. C. Morris Gift Shop (1948-49), San Francisco, and for the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum (1946-59), New York City. Other notable later buildings include a Unitarian church (1947), Madison, Wis.; the Price Tower (1955), Bartlesville, Okla.; and Beth Sholom Synagogue (1959), Elkins Park, Pa. He left numerous unrealized projects, including one for a mile-high skyscraper ("The Illinois") for Chicago and an ambitious design for a civic center in Madison, Wis. The latter was later reconceived as the Monona Terrace Community and Convention Center and opened in 1997.

Writings and Bibliography

Wright's architectural philosophy was expressed in his lectures and writings. Among them are On Architecture (1941); When Democracy Builds (1945); Genius and the Mobocracy (1949, enl. ed. 1971), an evaluation of his master Louis H. Sullivan; The Future of Architecture (1953); An American Architecture (1955); and A Testament (1957). His influence can be seen throughout Europe. Volumes illustrative of his works were published in France and Germany as early as 1910. In 1995 about 5,000 of his architectural drawings were published in CD-ROM form as Frank Lloyd Wright: Presentation and Conceptual Drawings.

See also his autobiography (enl. ed. 1977); biographies by his daughter, Iovanna Lloyd Wright (1962) and his wife, Olgivanna Lloyd Wright (rev. ed. 1970), F. Farr (1961), R. C. Twombly (1973), M. Secrest (1992), and A. L. Huxtable (2004); studies by H. R. Hitchcock (1942, repr. 1973); V. Scully (1960), P. Blake (rev. ed. 1964), H. A. Brooks (1972), D. L. Johnson (1990), and D. Hoffmann (1995); W. A. Storrer, a catalog of his buildings (1974, repr. 1978) and The Frank Lloyd Wright Companion (1994); bibliography by R. L. Sweeney (1978).

Wright, Henry, 1878-1936, American landscape architect and community planner, b. Lawrence, Kans., studied architecture at the Univ. of Pennsylvania. He was widely recognized as a leader in the movement for the building of better communities. He served (1918) as town planner for the Housing Division of the U.S. Emergency Fleet Corporation. Wright was a founding member of the Regional Planning Association of America, along with Lewis Mumford and Clarence Stein. This group imported Ebenezer Howard's garden city model from England to the United States. With Stein, Wright designed model communities at Sunnyside, L.I., and at Radburn, N.J. Radburn is especially noted for its superblock plan. He was consultant to the New York state commission on housing and regional planning during the 1920s, and later, to the Public Works Administration. Wright also taught at Columbia Univ. during the 1930s. He wrote Rehousing Urban America (1935).
Wright, James, 1927-80, American poet, b. Ohio. He studied at Kenyon College and the Univ. of Washington. The master of an elegant, beautifully controlled style, his early poems contained surrealistic juxtapositions. Later works abandoned willed complexity in favor of a plainer diction. His works include The Green Wall (1957), Shall We Gather at the River? (1968), To a Blossoming Pear Tree (1977), and the posthumous The Shape of Light (1986).

See his collected prose, ed. A. Wright (1982).

Wright, Jim (James Claud Wright, Jr.), 1922-, U.S. congressman, speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives (1987-89), b. Fort Worth, Tex. Following service in the U.S. army during World War II, Wright was a Texas state representative (1947-49) and mayor of Weatherford, Tex. (1950-54). He was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives from Texas in 1954. A moderate Democrat, he became House majority leader in 1976 and was named by his colleagues as the most respected member of the House in 1980. In 1987 he became House Speaker, but he resigned two years later amid charges of unethical conduct.

See his memoirs, Balance of Power (1996).

Wright, Joseph, 1756-93, American portrait painter, b. Bordentown, N.J., son of Patience Lovell Wright. He studied under Benjamin West in London, where he painted the prince of Wales (later George IV). Wright worked briefly in Paris, where he knew Franklin, whose letters of recommendation enabled him to obtain a sitting from General and Mrs. Washington on his return to America. He also painted a portrait of John Jay (N.Y. Historical Society) and a group portrait of his own family (Pa. Acad. of the Fine Arts). In 1792 he was made diesinker at the U.S. Mint, Philadelphia; the nation's first official coins and medals are probably Wright's work.
Wright, Judith (Judith Arundell Wright), 1915-2000, Australian poet. After graduating from the Univ. of Sydney, she worked variously as a clerk, secretary, and statistician. She is regarded as one of the most important Australian writers of the 20th cent. Her lyric poetry is marked by sensitivity of interpretation and absolute mastery of technique. Among her volumes of poetry are The Moving Image (1946), The Gateway (1953), City Sunrise (1964), Collected Poems, 1942-1970 (1971), and Phantom Dwelling (1985). She also published books for children; biographies of the Australian writers Charles Harpur and Charles Lawson; a volume of short stories (1966); and the critical work Preoccupations in Australian Poetry (1965). Wright was an activist in her homeland, speaking out and writing on such issues as environmental protection and land rights for aborigines.

See her autobiography, Half a Lifetime (1999); studies by P. G. Kenemy (1972), N. Simms, ed. (1976), S. Walker (1980, 1991), and J. Strauss (1995).

Wright, Orville: see Wright brothers.
Wright, Patience Lovell, 1725-86, American sculptor, b. Bordentown, N.J., mother of Joseph Wright. Her portraits, modeled in wax, were the earliest recorded attempts at sculptural expression in the American colonies. They were highly praised there and in England, where she lived after 1772 and where she modeled likenesses of the king, the queen, and other notables. It is said that in the Revolution she rendered service to the Americans by reporting British plans and preparations. Her full-length likeness of William Pitt was placed in Westminster Abbey. The painter John Hoppner was her son-in-law.
Wright, Richard, 1908-60, American author. An African American born on a Mississippi plantation, Wright struggled through a difficult childhood and worked to educate himself. He moved to Chicago in 1927 and in the 1930s joined the city's Federal Writers' Project and wrote Uncle Tom's Children (1938), a collection of four novellas dealing with Southern racial problems. His novel Native Son (1940), which many consider Wright's most important work, concerns the life of Bigger Thomas, a victimized African American struggling against the complicated political and social conditions of Chicago in the 1930s. In 1932, Wright joined the Communist party but later left it in disillusionment. After World War II, Wright moved to Paris. His Black Boy (1945), also regarded as one of his finest works, is an account of his childhood and youth. Other works include Twelve Million Black Voices (1941), a folk history of African Americans; American Hunger (1977), a two-part autobiography; The Outsider (1953) and The Long Dream (1958), two novels; Black Power (1954), an account of his trip to the Gold Coast (Ghana); and Eight Men (1961), a collection of stories published posthumously. Originally censored by his publishers due to their racial, political, or sexual candor, Wright's works were reissued unexpurgated in 1991.

See biographies by C. Webb (1968), M. Fabre (tr. 1973), A. Gayle (1980), M. Walker (1988), and H. Rowley (2001); studies by D. McCall (1969), K. Kinnamon (1973), and D. Ray and R. M. Farnsworth, ed. (1973).

Wright, Russel, 1905-76, American industrial designer, b. Lebanon, Ohio. Wright was notable for introducing modern functional forms, simplified shapes, and cheerful colors in furniture, appliances, ceramics, fabrics, and many other products used in daily life. He was largely responsible for the popularity of furniture of modern industrial design made with light-colored wood, and for the use of spun aluminum as a decorative material. His simple, sturdy forms in china, glass, and flatware were widely used and imitated. Manitoga, the Garrison, N.Y., estate and grounds he designed and once occupied, is open to the public.

See his Easier Living (1951).

Wright, Sewall, 1889-1988, American geneticist, b. Melrose, Mass., B.S. Lombard College, 1911, M.S. Univ. of Illinois, 1912, D.Sc. Harvard, 1915. From 1915 to 1925 he worked in the Bureau of Animal Industry of the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. He then taught (1926-54) at the Univ. of Chicago and was professor of genetics (1955-60) at the Univ. of Wisconsin. He conducted fundamental genetic studies, and is best known for his research on statistical patterns of heredity and evolution.
Wright, Silas, 1795-1847, American political leader, b. Amherst, Mass. He was admitted (1819) to the bar and began practicing law at Canton, N.Y. Becoming involved in state politics, in the 1820s he opposed the faction headed by De Witt Clinton and became one of the leaders of the Albany Regency. Having served (1824-27) in the state senate, he became (1827) a member of the U.S. House of Representatives and was (1829-33) comptroller of New York state. In the U.S. Senate (1833-44), Wright consistently supported President Andrew Jackson, voted for the annexation of Texas, upheld the Independent Treasury System, and opposed slavery. In 1844 the Democratic convention chose him as its vice presidential candidate, but Wright refused the nomination, ran for governor of New York instead, and defeated Millard Fillmore in a close contest. Wright vetoed a canal improvement bill, opposed calling the constitutional convention of 1846, and used the militia in the antirent riots.

See biography by J. A. Garraty (1949, repr. 1970).

Wright, Wilbur: see Wright Brothers.
Wright, Willard Huntington, pseud. S. S. Van Dine, 1888-1939, American art critic and mystery story writer, b. Charlottesville, Va. He attended college in California and later studied art in Paris and Munich. Wright was literary critic for the Los Angeles Times and several periodicals and was editor (1912-14) of the Smart Set. Before 1923 he wrote nine books, chiefly art criticism, including Modern Painting (1915), The Creative Will (1916), and The Future of Painting (1923). After suffering a breakdown of health, he began writing highly successful detective stories under his pseudonym, modeling the erudite detective, Philo Vance, after himself. The best of these works include The Benson Murder Case (1926), The Canary Murder Case (1927), and The Bishop Murder Case (1929).

Wright is a census-designated place (CDP) in Okaloosa County, Florida, United States. The population was 21,697 at the 2000 census.


Wright is located at (30.446373, -86.635420).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 5.5 square miles (14.3 km²), of which, 5.5 square miles (14.2 km²) of it is land and 0.1 square miles (0.2 km²) of it (1.26%) is water.


As of the census of 2000, there were 21,697 people, 9,134 households, and 5,507 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 3,967.0 people per square mile (1,531.5/km²). There were 10,004 housing units at an average density of 1,829.1/sq mi (706.1/km²). The racial makeup of the CDP was 76.01% White, 19.03% African American, 0.59% Native American, 3.40% Asian, 0.19% Pacific Islander, 1.53% from other races, and 4.24% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.24% of the population.

There were 9,134 households out of which 29.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.9% were married couples living together, 12.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.7% were non-families. 29.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 2.84.

In the CDP the population was spread out with 23.2% under the age of 18, 12.4% from 18 to 24, 34.1% from 25 to 44, 20.1% from 45 to 64, and 10.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 101.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.1 males.

The median income for a household in the CDP was $36,940, and the median income for a family was $43,802. Males had a median income of $26,870 versus $21,646 for females. The per capita income for the CDP was $18,746. About 8.4% of families and 10.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.2% of those under age 18 and 7.3% of those age 65 or over.


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