Definitions

wrestling

wrestling

[res-ling]
wrestling, sport in which two unarmed opponents grapple with one another. The object is to secure a fall, i.e., cause the opponent to lose balance and fall to the floor, and ultimately to pin the supine opponent's shoulders to the floor, through the use of body grips, strength, and adroitness.

One of the most primitive and universal sports, wrestling was probably known in prehistoric times. In ancient Greece, wrestlers were rated second only to discus throwers as popular Olympic heroes. The Greeks practiced two forms of wrestling—upright and ground. Wrestling was also included in the pentathlon and the pankration (combined with boxing); the most famous Greek wrestler was Milo of Crotona. Homer's account of the match between Ajax and Ulysses (Iliad, XXIII) is one of the world's greatest wrestling stories. Wrestling tournaments were held in medieval Europe, and the sport has remained popular throughout history.

Distinctly different styles of wrestling exist today. In Japan, for example, two types of wrestling styles are popular—sumo and jujitsu (see judo). Sumo, in which the object is to force the opponent out of the ring, is quasireligious in nature and involves much ritual. Most of its participants weigh 300 to 400 lb (135-180 kg). For centuries wrestling has been the center of life for the Nuba in Africa, who wrestle only after covering themselves with symbolic ash. In the traditional Turkish style of Pehlivan, wrestlers wear leather breeches and cover themselves with oil; the Shwingen style of Switzerland and the Glima of Iceland feature grips on the opponent's belt; the Cumberland-Westmoreland style from Britain relies on holds that bend opponents backward; in Central Asia, wrestlers still compete in Kuresh wrestling passed down from the Turkmen centuries ago.

Nearly all nations embrace the two types of wrestling contested in the Olympics: Greco-Roman and freestyle. Greco-Roman, most popular in continental Europe, prohibits tripping, holds below the waist, and the use of one's legs. Freestyle wrestling is most popular in the United States and E Europe. This form permits tackling, tripping, and leg holds. High schools and colleges in the United States employ a style that approximates freestyle. In nonprofessional wrestling, contestants are classified by weight. Wrestlers earn points for certain maneuvers and the highest accumulated total wins if there is no pin during a match. Professional wrestling in the United States, which is a form of entertainment rather than a sport, has enjoyed several periods of popularity; it relies on colorful showmanship and media exposure.

Sport in which two competitors grapple with and strive to trip or throw each other down or off-balance. It is practiced in various styles, including freestyle wrestling, in which contestants can use holds above and below the waist, and Greco-Roman wrestling, which allows only holds above the waist. Sambo is a style of Russian origin employing judo techniques. Sumo wrestling is a specialized Japanese variety. U.S. professional wrestling is today among the most popular of all spectator sports, though it principally involves wildly flamboyant showmanship, including such nonclassical moves as kicks to the head that would be lethal if they were not actually pulled.

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Wrestling is the act of physical engagement between two people in which each wrestler strives to get an advantage over, or control of, the opponent. Physical techniques which embody the style of wrestling are clinching, holding, locking, and leverage. Avoiding techniques likely to lead to serious injury, the basic principles of wrestling are closely related to those of military hand-to-hand combat or self-defence systems. Many styles of wrestling are known all over the world and have long histories. Amateur wrestling has been an Olympic sport for over one hundred years and professional wrestling is a popular form of entertainment as well as an art form.

History

Ancient

Middle and Far East

The Mahabharata, one of the major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, describes the encounter between the accomplished wrestlers Bhima and Jarasandha; "grasping each other in various ways by means of their arms, and kicking each other with such violence as to affect the innermost nerves, they struck at each other's breasts with clenched fists. With bare arms as their only weapons roaring like clouds they grasped and struck each other like two mad elephants encountering each other with their trunks". The popular folk wrestling style of India performed on a mud surface called the akhara follows the Indian tradition.

The Epic of Gilgamesh in Sumerian literature features its hero Gilgamesh establishing his credibility as a leader after wrestling Enkidu. Other sculptures and literature from ancient Mesopotamia show that wrestling was held in popularity. One other early (probably circa 1500 BC) description of wrestling appears in the Old Testament book of Genesis 32:22-32. The passage depicts the patriarch Jacob wrestling with the Angel, for which Jacob was subsequently renamed Israel. (Israel translates to "wrestles (or strives) with God".)

Shuai Jiao, a wrestling style originating in China, is arguably the most ancient of all Chinese martial arts, with a reported history of over 4,000 years. (The date may be legendary, but wrestling was reportedly used by the Yellow Emperor during his fight against the rebel Chih Yiu and his army in 2697 BC.) During these matches, the combatants reportedly wore horned helmets that they used to gore their opponents while using a primitive form of grappling. This early style of combat was first called Jiao Ti (butting with horns). Throughout the centuries, the hands and arms replaced the horns while the techniques increased and improved. The name Jiao Ti also changed over time, both through common usage and government decree.

Mediterranean

The first documented evidence of wrestling in Egypt appeared circa 2300 BC, on the tomb of the Old Kingdom philosopher Ptahhotep. During the period of the New Kingdom (2000-1085 BC), additional Egyptian artwork (often on friezes), depicted Egyptian and Nubian wrestlers competing. Carroll notes striking similarities between these ancient depictions and those of the modern Nuba wrestlers. On the 406 wrestling pairs found in the Middle Kingdom tombs at Beni Hasan in the Nile valley, nearly all of the techniques seen in modern freestyle wrestling could be found. During the period of Ancient Greece (about 1100 to 146 BC), Greek wrestling was a popular form of martial art in which points were awarded for pinning a competitor by stretching the opponent prone to the ground or touching his back to the ground, forcing a competitor to submit or by forcing a competitor out of bounds (arena). Three falls determined the winner. It was at least featured as a sport since the eighteenth Olympiad in 704 BC. Wrestling is described in the earliest celebrated works of Greek literature, the Iliad and the Odyssey. Wrestlers were also depicted in action on many vases, sculptures, and coins, as well as in other literature. Other cultures featured wrestling at royal or religious celebrations, but the ancient Greeks structured their style of wrestling as part of a tournament where a single winner emerged from a pool of competitors. Greek mythology celebrates the rise of Zeus as ruler of the earth after a wrestling match with his father, Cronus. Both Heracles and Theseus were famous for their wrestling against man and beast. Late Greek tradition also stated that Plato was known for wrestling in the Isthmian games.

This continued into the Hellenistic period. Ptolemy II and Ptolemy III of Egypt were both depicted in art as victorious wrestlers. After the Roman conquest of the Greeks, Greek wrestling was absorbed by the Roman culture and became Roman wrestling during the period of the Roman Empire (510 BC to AD 500). Arabic literature depicted Muhammad as a skilled wrestler, defeating a skeptic in a match at one point. By the eighth century, the Byzantine emperor Basil I, according to court historians, won in wrestling against a boastful wrestler from Bulgaria.

Middle Ages

In 1520 at the Field of the Cloth of Gold pageant, Francis I of France threw Henry VIII of England in a wrestling match. In Henry VIII's kingdom, folk wrestling in many places was widely popular and had a long history. In particular, the Lancashire style may have formed the basis for Catch wrestling also known as "catch as catch can." The Scots later formed a variant of this style, and the Irish developed the "collar-and-elbow" style which later found its way into the United States. The French developed the modern Greco-Roman style which was finalized by the 19th century and by then, wrestling was featured in many fairs and festivals.

Modern

Because of that and the rise of gymnasiums and athletic clubs, Greco-Roman wrestling and modern freestyle wrestling were soon regulated in formal competitions. On continental Europe, prize money was offered in large sums to the winners of Greco-Roman tournaments, and freestyle wrestling spread rapidly in the United Kingdom and in the United States after the American Civil War. Professional wrestling soon increased the popularity of Greco-Roman and freestyle wrestling around the world with such competitors as Georg Hackenschmidt, Kara Ahmed, Paul Pons, Stanislaus Zbyszko, William Muldoon, and Frank Gotch. When the Olympic games resurfaced at Athens in 1896, Greco-Roman wrestling was introduced for the first time. After not being featured in the 1900 Olympics, sport wrestling was seen again in 1904 in St. Louis; this time in freestyle competition. Since then, Greco-Roman and freestyle wrestling have both been featured, with women's freestyle added in the Summer Olympics of 2004. Since 1921, the International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles (FILA) has regulated amateur wrestling as an athletic discipline, while professional wrestling has largely become infused with theatrics but still requires athletic ability.Etymology The term wrestling is an Old English word that originated some time before 1100 A.D. It is perhaps the oldest word still in use in the English language to describe hand-to-hand combat. The Merriam-Webster online dictionary defines wrestling as "a sport or contest in which two unarmed individuals struggle hand-to-hand with each attempting to subdue or unbalance the other".

Roget's New Millennium Thesaurus does not support the usage of 'wrestling' (noun) and 'grappling' (noun) as synonymous.

International disciplines (non-folk styles)

Wrestling disciplines defined by FILA, are broken down into two categories; International wrestling disciplines and folk wrestling disciplines. According to the International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles, there are five current International wrestling disciplines acknowledged throughout the world. They are Greco-Roman Wrestling, Freestyle Wrestling, Grappling, Beach wrestling and Sambo.

Greco-Roman

Greco-Roman is an international discipline and an Olympic sport. "In Greco-Roman style, it is forbidden to hold the opponent below the belt, to make trips, and to actively use the legs in the execution of any action." Recent rule changes in Greco-Roman increase opportunities for and place greater emphasis on explosive, 'high amplitude' throws. One of the most well known Greco-Roman wrestlers is Alexander Karelin from Russia.

Grappling

"Grappling is a wrestling style also called submission wrestling or “submission grappling.” It consists of controlling the opponent without using striking. It is done from a standing position or on the ground after a throw, and the goal is to make the opponent submit via the use of immobilization techniques such as locks. Grappling plays an important role in the practice of Mixed Martial Arts (MMA) and can be used as a self-defence technique. It brings together techniques from Brazilian jiu-jitsu (no-Gi), Freestyle Wrestling, Folk American Wrestling (catch-as-catch-can), Sambo and judo.". Grappling is also used to describe the skills used in mixed martial arts competitions, differing from the FILA definition. Grappling can be trained for self defense, sport and mixed martial arts (MMA) competition.

Beach wrestling

Apparently in a bid to give wrestling greater appeal to television audiences, FILA adopted beach wrestling as an official discipline during 2004-2005. Beach wrestling is standing wrestling done by wrestlers, male or female, inside a sand-filled circle measuring in diameter. There are only two weight categories, heavy and light. The objective is to throw your opponent or take your opponent to his or her back. The wrestlers wear swimsuits rather than special wrestling uniforms. Wrestlers may also wear spandex or athletic shorts.

Sambo

Sambo is a martial art that originated in the Soviet Union (particular Russia) in the 20th century. It is an acronym for "self-defence without weapons" in Russian and had its origins in the Soviet armed forces. Its influences are varied, with techniques borrowed from sports ranging from the two international styles of Greco-Roman and freestyle to judo, jujutsu, European styles of folk wrestling, and even fencing. The rules for sport sambo are similar to those allowed in competitive judo, with a variety of leglocks and defense holds from the various national wrestling styles in the Soviet Union, while not allowing chokeholds.

Folk style disciplines

Folk wrestling describes a traditional form of wrestling unique to a culture or geographic region of the world. There are almost as many folk wrestling styles as there are national traditions. Folk style is also used across the United States in high school wrestling. Folk style is competed state wide in all states. Some states wrestle in classes depending on how large each school is. Others states have large tourneys that each individual has to win or place in order to move on to the final tourney, the State Championship. The sport allows mostly males to wrestle, although women are slowly introducing themselves to high school wrestling. Folk style is also held state wide in some states through the states wrestling associations. Holding tourneys on weekends for anyone of all ages to participate.

Examples of folk styles include Backhold Wrestling (from Europe), Catch-as-catch-can (from England), Kurash from Uzbekistan, Gushteengiri from Tajikistan,Khuresh from Siberia, Lotta Campidanese from Italy, Pahlavani from Iran, Pehlwani from India, Penjang Gulat from Indonesia, Schwingen from Switzerland, Shuai jiao from China, Ssireum from Korea, and Yağlı güreş (Turkish oil wrestling).

Folk wrestling styles are not recognized by FILA internationally.

Collegiate wrestling

Collegiate wrestling (sometimes known as scholastic wrestling or folk style wrestling) is the commonly used name of wrestling practiced at the college and university level in the United States. A modification of the style is practiced at the high school and middle school levels, and also for younger participants. The term is used to distinguish the styles of wrestling used in other parts of the world, and for those of the Olympic Games: Greco-Roman wrestling, and Freestyle wrestling. Some High Schools in the U.S. have developed "modified wrestling" teams alongside a varsity team. Modified wrestling restricts competitors not only by weight, but also by age and the amount of wrestling a competitor can partake in. For example, modified wrestling competitors are not allowed in tournament competition due to the amount of mat time a wrestler would accrue in a short time period.

There are currently several organizations which oversee collegiate wrestling competition: Divisions I, II, and III, of the NCAA, NJCAA, NAIA, and the NCWA. Division I of the NCAA is considered the most prestigious and challenging level of competition. A school chooses which organization to join, although it may compete against teams from other levels and organizations during regular-season competition. The collegiate season starts in November and culminates with the NCAA tournament held in March.

Professional wrestling

Modern professional wrestling is different from traditional wrestling as it has predetermined outcomes and in some promotions, "feuds" are used to build up a championship match. Performers mostly utilize the traditional Anglo-American catch wrestling holds. Professional wrestling, over the years, has become one of the most popular sports to watch and is practiced all over the world. Popular professional wrestlers through the years include William Muldoon, Georg Hackenschmidt, Frank Gotch, Joe Stecher, Ed "Strangler" Lewis, Jim Londos, Bill Longson, Lou Thesz, Gorgeous George, Buddy Rogers, Rikidozan, El Santo, Blue Demon, Verne Gagne, Bruno Sammartino, Giant Baba, Mil Máscaras, Terry Funk, Antonio Inoki, André the Giant, Jumbo Tsuruta, Ric Flair, Shawn Michaels, Sting, Owen Hart, Bret Hart, Hulk Hogan, Randy Savage, Ultimate Warrior, The Rock, Steve Austin, The Undertaker, Mick Foley, Batista, Kane, Triple H, Chris Benoit, John Cena, Jeff Hardy, Randy Orton, and many others.

Puroresu

Japanese professional wrestling, also known as puroresu, is treated as a sport rather than the entertainment style of wrestling found in North America. There are no storylines, feuds or any sort of angle found in puroresu. The matches are all about athleticism and skill. Another technique found in puroresu is that most of the wrestlers use shoot style strikes and complex submission moves. This means that the wrestlers are more prone to injury. Popular Japanese wrestlers include Kenta Kobashi, Tiger mask, The Great Muta, Jun Akiyama, Jushin "Thunder" Liger, and KENTA.

As a martial art

Wrestling has gained respect among martial arts practitioners, especially with the advent of mixed martial arts competition. Early competitions (e.g. UFC, Vale Tudo ) more wrestlers defeat stylists from traditional striking (and grappling) oriented styles such as boxing, judo, tae kwon do, karate, Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu and kickboxing. Considering only the first twelve UFC (few limited number of rules, no weight classes or weight limits and unlimited rounds ), amateur wrestling won tournaments UFC 5, UFC 6, UFC 8, UFC 9, UFC 10, UFC 12. Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu won UFC 1, UFC 2, UFC 4.

Randy Couture (UFC heavyweight champion) and Dan Henderson (current PRIDE champion in the 183 division and formerly 205 pound division champion) both competed extensively in collegiate and Greco-Roman wrestling before beginning their careers in mixed martial arts. Other top fighters coming from amateur wrestling include: Randy Couture, Matt Lindland, Matt Hughes, Dan Henderson, Sean Sherk, Urijah Faber, Tyson Griffin, Clay Guida, Kevin Randleman, Mark Kerr, Don Frye, Dan Severn, Mark Coleman, Bryan Vettel, Tito Ortiz, Quinton Jackson, Rashad Evans, Jeff Monson, Matt Horwich, Norifumi Yamamoto, Brock Lesnar, Gray Maynard, Matt Hamill, Benji Radach, Gerald Harris, Antonio McKee, Carmelo Marrero, Lew Polley, Vladimir Matyushenko, Ryan Schultz, Aaron Stark, Devin Cole, Ken Shamrock, , Josh Barnett, Brent Beauparlant, Mike Whitehead, Antoine Jaoude, Adam Maciejewski, Roy Nelson, Dan Molina, Reese Andy, Shad Lierley, Melvin Guillard, Dennis Hallman, Josh Koscheck, Mark Schultz, Brandon Vera, Renato Sobral, Jamie Varner, Ricco Rodriguez, Gilbert Melendez, Mitsuhiro Ishida, Takanori Gomi, Jon Fitch, Shane Carwin, Stephan Bonnar, Tim Boetsch, Chael Sonnen, Anthony Johnson, Frank Edgar, Matt Grice, Corey Hill, Roger Huerta, Cain Velasquez, Muhammad Lawal.

Many other prominent and successful fighters began their training in various forms of wrestling (Georges St. Pierre in freestyle wrestling), and fighters from non-wrestling backgrounds often pursue wrestling training to complement their other skills. Wrestling is one of the most dominant fighting styles in MMA/Vale Tudo.

See also

Notes

External links

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