In 1993 a terrorist car-bomb explosion damaged portions of the complex, killing six people and causing more than $300 million in damage. Sheik Omar Abdel Rahman and nine other Islamic extremists were convicted of conspiracy and other charges related to the bombing in 1993, and the so-called mastermind, Ramzi Yousef, was convicted in 1998. On Sept. 11, 2001, a second terrorist attack, in which two hijacked commercial jetliners were crashed into the towers, ignited huge, intense fires in the upper stories of both buildings, weakening them and leading to their collapse. Other structures in the complex were completely or partially destroyed as a result, and many surrounding buildings were severely damaged. More than 2,700 people, including the passengers and crew of the airliners and several hundred emergency personnel responding to the initial fires, lost their lives; more than 7,000 people were injured.
The enormity of the events of Sept. 11 (see also 9/11), which also involved a similar attack with a hijacked jetliner on the Pentagon in Washington, D.C., and the crash in W Pennsylvania of a fourth hijacked plane, galvanized national feeling in the United States, where many watched the events unfold on television. In the aftermath of the worst terrorist attack in history, President George W. Bush announced a war on terrorism, and many nations pledged their support. Al Qaeda, headed by Osama bin Laden, was identified by U.S. authorities as being behind the attacks, and the United States subsequently began military operations in Afghanistan, where bin Laden was based and where the government was closely allied with him.
In Dec., 2001, Zacarias Moussaoui, a Frenchman of Moroccan descent who had been arrested (Aug., 2001) on immigration violations in Minnesota, was indicted on charges that he was part of the conspiracy responsible for the September attacks. He pleaded guilty in 2005 to being part of a conspiracy to attack the White House in a similar manner but denied being part of either Sept. 11 attack, and was given a life sentence in 2006.
The alleged mastermind of the plot was Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, a Kuwaiti of Pakistani parentage who had become a high-ranking member of Al Qaeda. He was captured in Pakistan in 2003, held by the United States at an undisclosed location, and transferred to Guantánamo Bay in 2006. According to a censored transcript of a closed-door hearing in 2007, he admitted to organizing and supervising the execution of the attacks of Sept. 11, but the government also later revealed that he had been subjected to waterboarding, which is generally regarded as a form of torture. In Feb., 2008, the Pentagon announced that a military tribunal would try Mohammed and five others held at Guantánamo on conspiracy and other charges relating to the attacks.
In the aftermath of the center's destruction, many competing interests—the city and state of New York, the owners of the site, the buildings' developer, survivors of the attack and families and friends of those killed, and others—advocated a variety of approaches to rebuilding the site. After a lengthy design competition, a preliminary master construction plan for the site, by Daniel Libeskind, was approved in 2003. The design has since been much modified, and a new overall plan was unveiled in 2006.
Embracing the footprints where the towers once stood, a street-level memorial plaza is planned, with two sunken pools fed by waterfalls; the names of those who died as a result of the attack will be displayed in the plaza, which will also include a World Trade Center Museum. Surrounding the memorial, will be a group of office towers that rise in height toward the the "Freedom Tower" (Tower 1), designed by the American architect David M. Childs of Skidmore, Owings and Merrill. Tower 2 is being designed by England's Lord Norman Foster, Tower 3 by another English architect, Lord Richard Rogers, and Tower 4 by Japan's Fumihiko Maki. The complex will also include a transportation hub by Spain's Santiago Calatrava and a performing arts center to be created by Frank Gehry.
See studies by E. Darton (1999), A. K. Gillespie (1999), W. Langewiesche (2002), and J. Glanz and E. Lipton (2003).
Complex formerly consisting of seven buildings around a central plaza, near the southern tip of Manhattan. Its huge twin towers (completed 1970–72) were designed by Minoru Yamasaki (1912–86). At 1,368 ft (417 m) and 1,362 ft (415 m) tall, they were the world's tallest buildings until surpassed in 1973 by the Sears Tower in Chicago. The towers were notable for the relationship of their simple, light embellishment to their underlying structure. In 1993 a bomb planted by terrorists exploded in the underground garage, killing several people and injuring some 1,000. A much more massive attack occurred on Sept. 11, 2001, when first One World Trade Center and then Two World Trade Center were struck by hijacked commercial airliners that were deliberately flown into them. Shortly thereafter both of the heavily damaged towers, as well as adjacent buildings, collapsed into enormous piles of debris. The attacks claimed the lives of some 2,750 people. Thousands more were injured. See September 11 attacks.
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This tenant list was compiled from the original list provided by CoStar Group (a provider of electronic commercial real estate information), and quoted by CNN and most media. It was amended using the unblinking.com. Entries unique to UnBlinking are in italics, marked (?UB) if uncertain. Companies listed on different floors by each source are marked (CS) at their position in CoStar, and (UB) at their position in UnBlinking. Special cases link to footnotes for more explanations.
Note: Floor numbers in red are part of American Airlines Flight 11's impact area.
|110||Cartoon Network, CNBC, CNN, NJDOT, NPR, State of New Jersey, USPS, VH1 Uno, Channel 2 (WCBS), Channel 4 (WNBC) Channel 5 (WNYW), Channel 7 (WABC), Channel 11 (WPIX), Channel 13 (WNET), Channel 31 (WPXN), Channel 47 (WNJU), WKCR-FM, WPAT-FM, WNYC-FM, WKTU-FM|
|107||World Trade Club, Greatest Bar on Earth, Cointreau, Hotel and Restaurant Employees International|
|106||Windows on the World, Hotel and Restaurant Employees International|
|105||Cantor Fitzgerald, ESpeed, Genuity|
|104||Cantor Fitzgerald, Channel 4 (WNBC), ESpeed|
|103||Cantor Fitzgerald, ESpeed|
|102||Cantor Fitzgerald, Nishinippon Bank, Alliance Consulting Group, Boomer Esiason Foundation|
|101||Cantor Fitzgerald, Kidder, Peabody & Co., ESpeed|
|93||Marsh USA, Fred Alger Management|
|92||CARR Futures, Crédit Agricole|
|91||American Bureau of Shipping, Meyers Pollok Robbins, New Japan Securities International, Shiga Bank|
|90||American TCC International Group, Chugoku Bank, Dun & Bradstreet (UB)|
|89|| Barcley Dwyer, |
|88||Julien J. Studley, Viking Sea Freight, WTC Construction Manager|
|87||May Davis Group, Bank of Kinki, Okasan Securities (UB), Thor Technologies|
|86||Julien J. Studley, Alan Anthony (UB), Asiatic Chemical, Society of Satellite Professionals International, Trading Technologies|
|85||SMW Trading Corporation, Thermo Electron, Chicago Investment Group, Hyakugo Bank, Ohrenstein & Brown|
|84||Bright China Capital, David Peterson Law Offices, KITC, LG Securities America, San-In Godo Bank, TEMENOS USA, Unicom Capital Advisors, Blue Star Line North America, Daehan Investment Trust Company, Fukuoka City Bank|
|83||eMeritus Communications, General Telecommunications, Global Crossing Holdings, Lava Trading, Taipei Bank, Ameson Education and Culture Exchange Foundation (UB), Toho Bank, TTA, Wako Securities America|
|82||New York Metropolitan Transportation Council (CS), DMJM Harris|
|81||Bank of America, Network Plus, New Continental Enterprises, Blue Star Line North America (?UB), Network Plus Corporation|
|80||Agricor Commodities Corporation, Intrust Investment Realty, Noga Commodities Overseas, Shizuoka Bank, The Beast.com, RLI Insurance Company, Bank of Yokohama, Noga Hotels New York, Zenshinren Bank|
|79||Daynard & Van Thunen Company, First Liberty Investment Group, International Office Centers Corporation/Alliance Business Centers Network (notes), Nikko Securities, Okato Shoji Company International, Securant Technologies, Iyo Bank|
|78||Sky lobby, Avenir, Baltic Oil Corporation, Cedar Capital Management Associates, Cheng Cheng Enterprises Holdings, Geiger & Geiger, Hyundai Securities (America), International Trade Center, Korea Local Authorities Foundation for International Relations, Meridian Ventures Holdings, Pacrim Trading & Shipping, ThinkPath, Traders Access Center, Atinav Avenue, Korea Local Government Center, Partner Reinsurance Company, Thai Farmers Bank (UB), Verona Fair Organization US Representative|
|77||Hal Roth Agency, Jun He Law Offices (CS), Martin Progressive, Newey International Corporation, World Trade Centers Association, Alliance Continuing Care Network, Kühne & Nagel, Partner Reinsurance Company|
|65||Boeing Aviation Technical Services, Newark Liberty International Airport|
|63||Airport Access Program|
|62||CARR Futures (?UB)|
|61||Access to the Region's Core (ARC)|
|55||Pace University, World Trade Institute of Pace University, Benchmark Hospitality at Pace University (now Downtown Conference Center at Pace University)|
|53||AIG Aviation Brokerage, Bank of Taiwan, Bramax Manufacturing Corporation (CS) China Resource Products USA, Keenan, Powers & Andrews, Lo, Curto & Funk, Natural Nydegger Transport Corporation, Pacrim Trading & Shipping, Pure Energy Corporation, Broadview Networks, French Embassy Financial Services, JACOM Corporation, TripleHop Technologies|
|52||Gayer, Shyu & Wiesel, Hill, Betts & Nash, Howly (US) Corporation, Leeds & Morrelli, Okasan International (American) (CS), RGL Gallagher PC, Richard A. Zimmerman, TEMENOS USA, Williams Capital Group, Bramax Manufacturing Corporation (?UB), IFG East, Elevator Hall|
|51||AT&T Corporation, C&P Press, Chilean Government Trade Bureau, Chilean National Petroleum Company, Chilean Production Promotion Center, Chilean Trading Corporation, TradeWeb|
|50||Dai-Ichi Kangyo Trust Company of New York, DKB Securities Corporation|
|49||Dai-Ichi Kangyo Trust Company of New York, , Dai-Ichi Kangyo Bank, Overseas Union Bank (?UB), Pacific American Corporation (UB)|
|48||Dai-Ichi Kangyo Trust Company of New York, Dai-Ichi Kangyo Bank (?UB)|
|47||Pacific American Corporation (CS), American TCC International Group (?UB), G.Z. Stephens, National Futures Association, Quint Amasis, W.J. Export-Import, Adjusters International, Clear Forest Corporation|
|46||American Sino Trade Development Council, Auto Imperial Company, Blue Sky Technologies, Can-Achieve Consultants, Consolidated Steelex Corporation, Dahao USA Corporation, J&X Tans Trading Corporation International, Kanebo Information Systems Corporation, Meganet Management Consultants, Prospect International, Sinopec USA (CS), Suggested Open Systems, SunTendy America, T&T Enterprises International, Yong Ren America, American Freight Liners, Arab Chamber of Commerce, Bank of Yokohama, Charles Pan, China Chamber of Commerce, Computer Troubleshooters Metro NY/NJ, H. Taufiq Choudhury, Esq., LatinVision, Lief International USA (UB), Shipping Services Italia, Sumitomo Bank, View Trade|
|45||American Lota International, China Construction America, Dunavant Commodity Corporation, Employee Merit, Fertitta Enterprises, Martin A. Katz, CPA, Pure Energy Corporation, Sassoons Inc, Security Traders Association, Software Research Associates America, Streamline Capital, The Company Store, BAO Hercules, Bramax Manufacturing Corporation (UB), Ching Fong Investment Company New York, Cousin D&N, F.E. Wallace & Co., HS Futures, Hyundai Securities Company, Johnson Enterprises (?UB), S. Stern Custom Brokers''|
|44||Sky lobby, New York Society of Security Analysts, Market Technicians Association|
|40||Lehman Brothers, Commerzbank Capital Markets|
|39||Lehman Brothers, Cultural Institutions Retirement Systems, Overseas Union Bank, Xcel Federal Credit Union, Tai Fook Securities, Circle International, Northern Trust International Banking Corporation (UB), Sun Hung Kai Securities|
|38||Lehman Brothers, Regional Alliance for Small Contractors, Turner Construction Company|
|37||Commodity Futures Trading Commission, Government of Thailand, S. Stern Custom Brokers (?UB), Thai Trade Center, Thai Board of Investment, Thai Office of the Economic Counselor|
|36||Kemper Insurance Companies|
|35||Kemper Insurance Companies, Anne Pope Law Offices|
|34||Royal Thai Embassy Office (UB), Port Commerce Department, Port Authority, Thailand Tourism Authority|
|33||Berel & Mullen, China Daily Distribution Corporation, Data Transmission Network Corporation, Hu Tong International Company, Koudis International (CS), MANAA Trading Group, MIS Service Company, Rachel & Associates, Serko & Simon, Golden King, American Bright Signs, China United Trading Corporation, Excel Shipping, Korean Associates Securities, Lunham & Reeve, Rohde & Liesenfeld (?UB)|
|32||Banco LatinoAmericano de Exportaciones Sud America (CS), Chang Hwa Commercial Bank, Rohde & Liesenfeld, Cantor Fitzgerald International (UB), Koudis International (?UB)|
|31||Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, EmpireBlue|
|29||China Patent and Trademark Agent USA, World Travel, Seth Shipping Corporation, Taipei Bank (?UB), ZimAmerican Israeli Shipping Company (UB)|
|28||Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, EmpireBlue|
|27||Bangkok Metropolitan Bank, EmpireBlue, Sinopec USA (UB)|
|25||Garban Intercapital, R.H. Wrightson & Associates, Cote d'Ivoire Embassy Commercial Counselor, EXCO USA International, Harold I. Pepper Company|
|24||Empire Health Choice, Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, Dominican Republic Export Promotion Center, Electric Paper, RN Forwarding|
|23||Empire Health Choice|
|22||Cheng Xiang Trading USA, Chicago Board Options Exchange Corporation, G.C. Services, Gold Sky, Kaiser Overseas, Karoon Capital Management, MLU Investment, P. Wolfe Consultants, Tai Fook Securities, The SCPIE Companies, Unicom Capital Advisors, AMROC International Company, Central Trust of China, China Steel Company, New York Metropolitan Transportation Council (UB), SySoft e-Business Lab, Security Command Center|
|21||Avesta Computer Services, Continental Logistics, Dongwon Securities Company, Dr. Tadasu Tokumaru, M.D., Friends, Ivory & Sime, Friends Villas Fischer Trust, Infotech Commercial Systems, Roman V. Popik Law Offices, Lief International (CS), Tower Computer Services, United Seamen's Service (USS-AMMLA), 1 Stop Investment Advice, Brauner International Corporation, Cat Technology, International Cobal, J.D. Smith Customs Broker, Marc Commodities, Regional Alliance for Small Contractors (?UB), United Hercules (UB)|
|20||Empire Health Choice, Rohde & Liesenfeld|
|19||Empire Health Choice, Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, Adams McFarlane LLC (NexxtHealth), Excel Shipping, HZ Bernstein Air Freight, Leading Forwarders|
|17||ZimAmerican Israeli Shipping Company (CS), Empire Health Choice, ABC International, Masterpiece International, Nippon Express USA|
|16||ZimAmerican Israeli Shipping Company (CS), California Bank and Trust, Ramon International Insurance Brokers (ZimAmerican), Seven Star Lines|
|15||Landmark Education Corporation, Continental Forwarding, Gringsby Brandford & Co., H.W. Robinson & Co., John F. Kilroy|
|14||Instinet, Dun & Bradstreet (CS), Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, Aeolian Shipping Company, C. Allen & Co., Hirshbach & Smith, S. Stern CHB, VanderGrift Forwarding|
|12||Lafayette Shipping Company|
|11||Bank of America, Porcella Vicini & Co., Primark Decision Economics, DRI-WEFA, Frederick Henjes, Raymond James & Associates, Tes USA (UB)|
|10||Bank of America, Export Import Service, Hauser Air Corporation|
|9||Bank of America, Foreign Credit Insurance Association|
|5||Gayer, Shyu & Wiesel|
|3||Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, W.R. Hambrecht|
|L||Avis, Delta Air Lines, Olympia Airport Express|
|C||Ann Taylor Loft, NY Coffee Station, Strawberry, Menchanko-Teikeionos|
Floor unknown: Cedel Bank International, LG Insurance Company, Alliance Global Finance, AMH International Trading, Associated Charter Marine, Carreden Group, Charles Schwab, CIF Agency, Continental Airlines, Continental Express, Deloitte & Touche, Dimetol International Trade, Eastern Capital Corporation, Falcon International Freight, First Pacific Rim, GAC Shipping, Garwood Financial, Globe Shipping Company, GSI Cargo Service, Hachijuni Bank, Hanil Securities, Lin Brothers International, Max Gregorcic, Morgan Stanley, Norman Elisberg, Pluto Commodities, Port Newark, Stephen de Zagon, Trans World Airlines, Welton International Trading