Program through which employers bear some of the cost of their employees' work-related injuries and occupational illnesses or disabilities. It was first introduced in Germany in 1884. In Britain and the U.S. in the late 19th century, there was a movement to secure the right of injured workers to compensation and to improve working conditions through court decisions, employer liability statutes, and safety codes. By the mid-20th century most countries in the world had adopted some sort of workers' compensation. Some systems take the form of compulsory social insurance; in others the employer is legally required to provide certain benefits, but insurance is voluntary. The system of workers' compensation serves as an economic incentive for employers to prevent accidents and illness among employees, since liability for medical costs and the income lost by placing workers in hazardous environments can easily exceed the costs of establishing safe working conditions.
Learn more about workers' compensation with a free trial on Britannica.com.
U.S. labour union. Founded in 1890, the UMWA grew rapidly under the leadership of John Mitchell (president 1898–1908) despite determined opposition from coal-mine operators. By 1920, when John L. Lewis took over, the union had half a million members. Lewis capitalized on the pro-labour climate of the New Deal and led numerous strikes to win fair pay, safe working conditions, and benefits. The UMWA was a mainstay of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (see AFL-CIO) in its early years, but Lewis withdrew the union from the CIO in 1942. Unaffiliated for decades, the UMWA finally joined the AFL-CIO in 1989. The UMWA's importance declined in the later 20th century with the waning of the labour movement and the rise of alternative sources of fuel, and by the 1990s it had fewer than 200,000 members.
Learn more about United Mine Workers of America (UMWA) with a free trial on Britannica.com.
Radical labour organization founded in Chicago in 1905. The founders, who opposed the moderate policies of the AFL (see AFL-CIO), included William Haywood of the Western Federation of Miners, Daniel De Leon of the Socialist Labor Party, and Eugene V. Debs. In 1908 the IWW split, and a militant group led by Haywood prevailed. To reach its goal of worker control of the means of production, it advocated general strikes, boycotts, and sabotage. Its tactics led to arrests and adverse publicity, though it made gains through strikes in the mining and lumber industries. It opposed U.S. participation in World War I, and some of its leaders were prosecuted. By the 1920s membership had dwindled greatly.
Learn more about Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) with a free trial on Britannica.com.
The color of the party is red, and its symbol is a red "PT" star with the "PT" label in white. The flag of the party is an inverted white "PT" star on a red background.
Other well known members of the Worker's Party include: Frei Betto, Ana Julia Carepa, Marcelo Déda, Wellington Dias, Antônio Palocci Filho, Luiz Gushiken, Guido Mantega, Binho Marques, Aloízio Mercadante, Dilma Rousseff, Eduardo Suplicy and Marta Suplicy.
The party is recognized as one of the most important left-wing parties of Latin America.
On October 29, 2006, the Workers' Party won 83 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and 11 seats in the Senate. Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva was re-elected with more than 60% of the votes, extending his position as President of Brazil until January 1, 2011.
The Workers' Party is now the second largest party in the Chamber of Deputies, the fourth largest party in the Senate, and has 5 state governorships.
In a recent move, 112 members of the radical wing of the Party announced they were abandoning PT in the World Social Forum, in Porto Alegre, on January 30 2005. They also published a manifesto entitled Manifesto of the Rupture that states that PT is no longer an instrument of social transformation, but only an instrument of the status quo, continuing with references to the IMF and other economic and social issues.
A small minority of party members defected as a result of the crisis. Most of them went to P-SOL.
Since its inception the party has been led by:
The group has the responsability to work with the Brazilian community in London to help them to understand their Brazilian rights in the UK.