In physics, the measure of energy transfer that occurs when an object is moved over a distance by an external force, some component of which is applied in the direction of displacement. For a constant force, work math.W is equal to the magnitude of the force math.F times the displacement math.d of the object, or math.W = math.Fmath.d. Work is also done by compressing a gas, by rotating a shaft, and by causing invisible motions of particles within a body by an external magnetic force. No work is accomplished by simply holding a heavy stationary object, because there is no transfer of energy and no displacement. Work done on a body is equal to the increase in energy of the body. Work is expressed in units called joules (J). One joule is equivalent to the energy transferred when a force of one newton is applied over a distance of one metre.
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Honeycomb-like Islamic architectural ornamentation formed by the intricate corbeling (see corbel) of squinches (see Byzantine architecture), brackets, and inverted pyramids in overlapping tiers. It appeared in the early 12th century throughout the Islamic world; a frequent use was to overlay the transitional zone between domes and their supports. It reached its highest development in the 14th–15th century, when it became the usual decoration for door heads, niches, and the bracketing under cornices and minaret galleries. Rich examples are found in the Alhambra and other Moorish works in Spain.
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In the U.S., any state law forbidding various union-security measures, particularly the union shop, under which workers are required to join a union within a specified time after they begin employment. Supporters of such laws maintain that they are more equitable because they allow a person to choose whether or not to join a labour union. Opponents contend that the name right-to-work law is misleading because such laws do not guarantee employment to anyone. On the contrary, they maintain that such laws tend to reduce workers' job security by weakening the bargaining power of unions.
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Type of decorative inlay or mosaic used by Roman decorators and architects in the 12th–13th centuries. Small pieces of coloured stone and glass were combined with strips and disks of white marble arranged in geometric patterns. Cosmati work was used for architectural decoration and church furnishings. The term derives from craftsmen of several families named Cosmatus.
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Semiskilled or unskilled workers who move from one region to another, offering their services on a temporary, usually seasonal, basis. In North America, migrant labour is generally employed in agriculture and moves seasonally from south to north following the harvest. In Europe and the Middle East, migrant labour usually involves urban rather than agricultural employment and calls for longer periods of residence. The migrant labour market is often disorganized and exploitative. Many workers are supervised by middlemen such as labour contractors and crew leaders, who recruit and transport them and dispense their pay. Labourers commonly endure long hours, low wages, poor working conditions, and substandard housing. In some countries, child labour is widespread among migrant labourers, and even in the U.S. those children who do not work often do not go to school, since schools are usually open only to local residents. Workers willing to accept employment on these terms are usually driven by even worse conditions in their home countries. Labour organizing is made difficult by mobility and by low rates of literacy and political participation, though some migrant labourers in the U.S. have been unionized. Seealso Cesar Chavez.
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WPI was formed in 1991 after some memebrs of the Communist Party of Iran left to form a new party. The main Founder and Leader of the Party was Mansoor Hekmat, who died in 2002. Hekmat is still noted as the most important figure in the Party histoty.
WPI is banned in Iran as are other parties opposed to the Islamic Republic. It nevertheless boasts members in Workers, Students and other sections of Iranian society. the Party maintains quite a feasible presence in Western Countries including official organizations in Germany, UK, Sweden, Netherlands, Norway, France, Finland, Denmark and Canada. it also has members in United States, Turkey, Pakistan and etc. in this countries WPI works inside Iranian Community and general political sphere its main aim being Isolating the Islamic Republic.
WPI owns a 24 hour TV station called “New Channel” which is mainly in Persian but also broadcasts some programs in English, Kurdish and Azeri Turkish. The WPI declares New Channel as the first 24 hour communist TV in the world.
The Communist Youth Organization is the Youth Wing of WPI.
The Communist Youth Organisation also has an official paper named “Javanane Komonist” (in Persian:Communist Youth) which is published every Tuesday in Persian.
The party has an official English paper named WPI Briefing and sometimes they publish similar papers on German, Dutch and etc.
“Kargare Kommunist” (Communist Worker) is another Persian paper of WPI covering workers' issues.
The party also publishes an English newsletter named “Workers in Iran” concerning latest news from the workers' movement in Iran.
The WPI Kurdistan Committee publishes its own paper called “Iskra” in Persian.
in March 2006 WPI started its Theoretical-Political Paper named "Besooye Socialism" (in Persian: Toward Socialism). one issue has been published as by October 2008.
The Communist Youth Organisation.
The International Federation of Iranian Refugees, known as “Hambastegi” (solidarity) is a vast organisation that was formed before the establishment of WPI but today is close to party. IFIR is struggling for refugees' rights, especially those who are coming from Iran. IFIR has a weekly paper in Persian named “Hambastegi Haftegi” (Weekly Solidarity) and a monthly paper (also in Persian) named “Hambastegi Mahane” (Monthly Solidarity).
“Children First Now” emerged from “Children First” (which was formed by Mansoor Hekmat and Soraya Shahabi) and is a campaign for children's rights in Iran. it publish a Persian paper named “Koodakan Moqadamand” (Children are Precedent).
The Marx Society of London was formed By Mansoor Hekmat and Koroosh Modarresi after a long series of debates following the major split in the WPI in August 2004. It is working closely with WPI. The Society concentrates on theoretical issues in Marxism. Other Marx Societies (also close to WPI) have been formed in other countries, such as Canada.
LWPI Current Leader, Osam Shukri is a member of Central Committee and politburo of WPI.
The Central Committee subsequently voted for immediate election of the leader. Taqvaee and Modaressi nominated themselves and Koroosh Modaressi was chosen.
During the 4th Congress of Party, Modaressi did not nominate himself for leadership again saying that he would like stand down in favour of Hamid Taqvaee who, as the only candidate, was then appointed automatically.
The conflict beetwen the two parties is still ongoing and the WPI leadership sometimes call the WPI-H as 'Anti-Hekmatist' in sarcasm. In return the WPI-H claims that WPI is a retreat to the "traditional left" and is a "populist" party.