In physics, the measure of energy transfer that occurs when an object is moved over a distance by an external force, some component of which is applied in the direction of displacement. For a constant force, work math.W is equal to the magnitude of the force math.F times the displacement math.d of the object, or math.W = math.Fmath.d. Work is also done by compressing a gas, by rotating a shaft, and by causing invisible motions of particles within a body by an external magnetic force. No work is accomplished by simply holding a heavy stationary object, because there is no transfer of energy and no displacement. Work done on a body is equal to the increase in energy of the body. Work is expressed in units called joules (J). One joule is equivalent to the energy transferred when a force of one newton is applied over a distance of one metre.

Learn more about work with a free trial on

or muqarnas

Honeycomb-like Islamic architectural ornamentation formed by the intricate corbeling (see corbel) of squinches (see Byzantine architecture), brackets, and inverted pyramids in overlapping tiers. It appeared in the early 12th century throughout the Islamic world; a frequent use was to overlay the transitional zone between domes and their supports. It reached its highest development in the 14th–15th century, when it became the usual decoration for door heads, niches, and the bracketing under cornices and minaret galleries. Rich examples are found in the Alhambra and other Moorish works in Spain.

Learn more about stalactite work with a free trial on

In the U.S., any state law forbidding various union-security measures, particularly the union shop, under which workers are required to join a union within a specified time after they begin employment. Supporters of such laws maintain that they are more equitable because they allow a person to choose whether or not to join a labour union. Opponents contend that the name right-to-work law is misleading because such laws do not guarantee employment to anyone. On the contrary, they maintain that such laws tend to reduce workers' job security by weakening the bargaining power of unions.

Learn more about right-to-work law with a free trial on

Type of decorative inlay or mosaic used by Roman decorators and architects in the 12th–13th centuries. Small pieces of coloured stone and glass were combined with strips and disks of white marble arranged in geometric patterns. Cosmati work was used for architectural decoration and church furnishings. The term derives from craftsmen of several families named Cosmatus.

Learn more about Cosmati work with a free trial on

Semiskilled or unskilled workers who move from one region to another, offering their services on a temporary, usually seasonal, basis. In North America, migrant labour is generally employed in agriculture and moves seasonally from south to north following the harvest. In Europe and the Middle East, migrant labour usually involves urban rather than agricultural employment and calls for longer periods of residence. The migrant labour market is often disorganized and exploitative. Many workers are supervised by middlemen such as labour contractors and crew leaders, who recruit and transport them and dispense their pay. Labourers commonly endure long hours, low wages, poor working conditions, and substandard housing. In some countries, child labour is widespread among migrant labourers, and even in the U.S. those children who do not work often do not go to school, since schools are usually open only to local residents. Workers willing to accept employment on these terms are usually driven by even worse conditions in their home countries. Labour organizing is made difficult by mobility and by low rates of literacy and political participation, though some migrant labourers in the U.S. have been unionized. Seealso Cesar Chavez.

Learn more about migrant labour with a free trial on

The Worker-Communist Party of Iran (حزب کمونیست کارگری ایران) is a political party that seeks the revolutionary overthrow of the Islamic Republic of Iran, and the establishment of a 'Socialist Republic' in its place. The party's primary slogans are "Liberty, Equality, Workers' Rule" , "Down with the Islamic Republic", "For a Socialist Republic", and "The Basis of Socialism is the Human Being".

WPI was formed in 1991 after some memebrs of the Communist Party of Iran left to form a new party. The main Founder and Leader of the Party was Mansoor Hekmat, who died in 2002. Hekmat is still noted as the most important figure in the Party histoty.

The current leader is Hamid Taqvaee, some Other important figures are Mostafa Saber, Mina Ahadi and Maryam Namazie.

WPI is banned in Iran as are other parties opposed to the Islamic Republic. It nevertheless boasts members in Workers, Students and other sections of Iranian society. the Party maintains quite a feasible presence in Western Countries including official organizations in Germany, UK, Sweden, Netherlands, Norway, France, Finland, Denmark and Canada. it also has members in United States, Turkey, Pakistan and etc. in this countries WPI works inside Iranian Community and general political sphere its main aim being Isolating the Islamic Republic.

WPI owns a 24 hour TV station called “New Channel” which is mainly in Persian but also broadcasts some programs in English, Kurdish and Azeri Turkish. The WPI declares New Channel as the first 24 hour communist TV in the world.

The Communist Youth Organization is the Youth Wing of WPI.

Current Leadership and Organs

The Current leaders and organs of WPI are:

  • Leader, the Secretary of Central Committee: Hamid Taqvaee
  • Central Committee: chosen in Sixth Congress, May 2007: Mohamad Asangaran, Mohsen Ebrahimi, Mina Ahadi, Siamak Amjadi, Nazanin Boroomand, Siamak Bahari, Sima Bahari, Fateh Bahrami, Fariborz Pooya, Hamid Taqvaee, Amir Tavakolli, Keivan Javid, Farshad Hosseini, Bahman Khani, Shahla Daneshfar, Bahram Soroosh, Mahboobe Siahmardi, Soheila Sharifi, Issam Shukri, Mostafa Saber, Soosan Saberi, Hasan Salehi, Mansoor Farzad, Asqar Karimi, Khalil Keyvan, Shiva Mahboobi, Maryam Namazie, Samir Noori, Kazem Nikkhah, Babak Yazdi, Kian Azar, Faride Arman, Saman Ahmadi, Abdollah Asadi, Naser Asqari, Gholam Akbari, Behrouz Bahari, Hassan Panahi, Mitra Daneshi, Karim Shahmohammadi, Mahin Alipour, Morteza Fateh, Meresede Qaedi, Manochehr Masouri, Abdol Golparian, Yadi Mahmoodi, Reza Moradi, Navid Minaee, Jamshid Hadian
  • Political Bureau: Chosen by the 30th Plenum of Central Committee: Mohammad Asangaran, Mohsen Ebrahimi, Mina Ahadi, Abdollah Asadi, Siamak Bahari, Fateh Bahrami, Keyvan Javid, Farshad Hosseini, Shahla Daneshfar, Bahram Soroush, Issam Shukri, Mostafa Saber, Hassan Salehi, Morteza Fateh, Asqar Karimi, Khalil Keyvan, Navid Minaee, Maryam Namazie and Kazem Nikkhah
  • Chairperson of Political Bureau: Mostafa Saber
  • Secretary of Communist Youth Organisation: Navid Minaee
  • Secretary of Organizing Committee (Inside Iran): Shahla Daneshfar
  • Coordinator of Central Office: Siamak Bahari
  • Kurdistan Committee: Chosen in Kurdistan Cadres Conference in Summer 2005: Mohammad Asangaran, Mansoor Farzad, Samad Ahmadi, Hasti Rahmati, Omid Zamani, Khosro Shad, Reza Fathi, Nima Moradi, Veria Ahmadi, Abdollah Asadi, Abbas Ayagh, Bahman Khani, Siavash Daneshvar, Hadi Rahimi, Razgar Rezayi, Nasrin Ramezanali, Karim Shah Mohammadi, Monir Sharif poorian, Soheila Sharifi, Shame Salavati, Abdolah SeidMoradi, Saleh Falahi, Iraj Farjad, Parvin Kaboli, Asqar Karimi, Mohamadamin Kamangar, Abdol Golparian, Heidar Goyli, Yadi Mahmoodi, Fereshteh Moradi, Shahnaz Moratab, Esmayil Moloodi, Saber Noori, Satar Noorizad, Rahim Yazdanparast
  • Secretary of Kurdistan Committee: Mohamad Asangaran
  • Secretary of Abroad (Outside Iran) Committee: Hasan Salehi
  • Secretary of International Relations Committee: Siyavash Azeri
  • Secretary of Germany Committee: Mohammad Shokoohi
  • Secretary of Sweden Committee: Behrooz Mehrabadi
  • Secretary of Britain Committee: Jalil Jalili
  • Secretary of Canada East Committee: Babak Yazdi
  • Secretary of Canada West Committee: Abbas Mandegar
  • Secretary of Netherlands Committee: Bahman Zakeri-Nejad
  • Secretary of Norway Committee: Saber Rahimi
  • Secretary of France Committee: Yadi Koohi
  • Secretary of Finland Committee: Abdol Golparian
  • Secretary of Denmark Committee: Morad Sheikhi

Publications and Papers

The WPI's main newspaper is “Anternasional” (in Persian: International), which usually extends to around eight pages and is published in Persian every Friday.

The Communist Youth Organisation also has an official paper named “Javanane Komonist” (in Persian:Communist Youth) which is published every Tuesday in Persian.

The party has an official English paper named WPI Briefing and sometimes they publish similar papers on German, Dutch and etc.

“Kargare Kommunist” (Communist Worker) is another Persian paper of WPI covering workers' issues.

The party also publishes an English newsletter named “Workers in Iran” concerning latest news from the workers' movement in Iran.

The WPI Kurdistan Committee publishes its own paper called “Iskra” in Persian.

in March 2006 WPI started its Theoretical-Political Paper named "Besooye Socialism" (in Persian: Toward Socialism). one issue has been published as by October 2008.

Current editors of WPI Papers

  • Editor of “Anternasional” : Mohsen Ebrahimi
  • Editor of “Javanane Komonist”: Mostafa Saber
  • Editor of WPI Briefing: Fariborz Pooya, Maryam Namazie,
  • Editor of “Kargare Komonist”: Kazem Nikkhah
  • Editor of Workers in Iran newsletter: Naser Asqari
  • Editor of “Iskra”: Abdol Golparian
  • Editor of “Besooye Socialism”: Fateh Bahrami

Participation in allied groups and campaigns

Since the establishment of the party, WPI members and cadres have created and joined many organisations and campaigns on different issues. Such organisations are usually very close to the party. These are as follows:

The Communist Youth Organisation.

The International Federation of Iranian Refugees, known as “Hambastegi” (solidarity) is a vast organisation that was formed before the establishment of WPI but today is close to party. IFIR is struggling for refugees' rights, especially those who are coming from Iran. IFIR has a weekly paper in Persian named “Hambastegi Haftegi” (Weekly Solidarity) and a monthly paper (also in Persian) named “Hambastegi Mahane” (Monthly Solidarity).

Children First Now” emerged from “Children First” (which was formed by Mansoor Hekmat and Soraya Shahabi) and is a campaign for children's rights in Iran. it publish a Persian paper named “Koodakan Moqadamand” (Children are Precedent).

The Marx Society of London was formed By Mansoor Hekmat and Koroosh Modarresi after a long series of debates following the major split in the WPI in August 2004. It is working closely with WPI. The Society concentrates on theoretical issues in Marxism. Other Marx Societies (also close to WPI) have been formed in other countries, such as Canada.

Anjomane Zede din(Anti-Religion Society) is a secularist group formed in August 2005. it is very close to WPI and has its own paper, called in Persian, “Sekolar”.

Current Leadership of Close organisations to WPI

Sister Parties

Leftist Worker-Communist Party of Iraq which was formed in 2004 after the major split in the WPI. It is a sister party to WPI.

LWPI Current Leader, Osam Shukri is a member of Central Committee and politburo of WPI.



The founding declaration of the party has four signatures: Mansoor Hekmat, Koorosh Modarresi, Reza Moghadam and Iraj Azarin. The latter three individuals have since left the party.

Debate on Leadership

After the death of Mansoor Hekmat in 2002, there was a debate in the party over whether a new leader should be announced or not. This led to the formation of two factions, one centred on Hamid Taghvayee, who was defending "Collective Leadership"; the other around Koroosh Modaressi who believed that party should choose a leader immediately.

The Central Committee subsequently voted for immediate election of the leader. Taqvaee and Modaressi nominated themselves and Koroosh Modaressi was chosen.

During the 4th Congress of Party, Modaressi did not nominate himself for leadership again saying that he would like stand down in favour of Hamid Taqvaee who, as the only candidate, was then appointed automatically.

Major Split in August 2004

The leadership debates eventually led to the exodus of more than half of the members of Central Commititee and most of the Kurdistan Committee in August 2004. The defectors chose the leadership of Koroosh Modaressi, who then was Chairperson of Political Bureau. This move was supported by the leadership of the Worker-Communist Party of Iraq. Together they formed a new party called “Worker-Communist Party of Iran-Hekmatist”. They claim to be closer to the ideas of Mansoor Hekmat, though this is denied by the leadership of the WPI, who declare themselves to be the real followers of Hekmat's path.

The conflict beetwen the two parties is still ongoing and the WPI leadership sometimes call the WPI-H as 'Anti-Hekmatist' in sarcasm. In return the WPI-H claims that WPI is a retreat to the "traditional left" and is a "populist" party.


External links

Search another word or see workeron Dictionary | Thesaurus |Spanish
Copyright © 2015, LLC. All rights reserved.
  • Please Login or Sign Up to use the Recent Searches feature