Worcester

Worcester

[woos-ter]
Worcester, Edward Somerset, 6th earl and 2d marquess of, 1601?-1667, English soldier and inventor. Known as Lord Herbert after 1628, he received the title earl of Glamorgan in 1644 and succeeded as earl and marquess of Worcester in 1646. Sent to raise royalist troops in Ireland, Glamorgan, himself a Roman Catholic, exceeded his instructions when he signed (1645) on behalf of Charles I a treaty with the Irish Roman Catholics that would have given them freedom of worship. This treaty proved so offensive to the Protestant royalists that Charles repudiated it. Worcester went to France in 1648 and was imprisoned for two years on his return to England (1652). Most of his estates were returned to him at the Restoration (1660). He was interested in mechanical experiments, which he described in a long treatise, and is said to have invented a steam engine.
Worcester, John Tiptoft, earl of 1427?-1470, English nobleman. He studied at Oxford and was created earl of Worcester in 1449. He served as treasurer of the exchequer (1452-55) and lord deputy of Ireland (1456-57). In 1457 he went on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land and on the return journey stayed in Italy for two years. There he studied under Guarino da Verona and acquired a considerable reputation as a Latin scholar. He was one of the first Englishmen to become familiar with the learning of the Italian Renaissance. On his return to England, Worcester, who was a brother-in-law of the powerful Richard Neville, earl of Warwick, became (1462) constable of England under Edward IV. In this capacity he tried and sentenced to death many of the Lancastrian leaders. He again became (1467) lord deputy of Ireland and had the earl of Desmond executed—and, it is claimed, Desmond's two sons as well. He was appointed constable again in Mar., 1470, but when Warwick restored Henry VI to the throne in October, Worcester fled. He was captured, condemned by John de Vere, earl of Oxford (whose father and brother Worcester had sentenced to death in 1462), and executed. Hated by the Lancastrians, he was called "the butcher of England." His translation of Cicero's De amicitia was printed by William Caxton in 1481.
Worcester, Noah, 1758-1837, American Congregational clergyman, b. Hollis, N.H. He was pastor (1787-1810) at Thornton, N.H. From 1813 to 1818 he was the first editor of the Christian Disciple, a Unitarian periodical. He is, however, best remembered for his work in behalf of peace. His Solemn Review of the Custom of War (1814), under the pseudonym Philo Pacificus, had worldwide circulation and led to the establishment of peace societies. Worcester was secretary of the Massachusetts Peace Society (founded 1815), and he founded and edited (1819-28) a magazine, The Friend of Peace.
Worcester, Thomas Percy, earl of, c.1344-1403, English nobleman; brother of Henry Percy, 1st earl of Northumberland. He served with considerable success in the wars in France and Spain, especially as admiral of the fleet of the north, a position to which he was appointed in 1378. He also served on several diplomatic missions, heading the English embassy to France to treat for peace in 1392. He was created earl of Worcester by Richard II in 1397. He accompanied Richard to Ireland in 1399 as admiral, but upon their return to England he joined his brother and his nephew, Sir Henry Percy, in supporting the seizure of the throne by Henry IV. Henry confirmed Worcester's past privileges and in 1401 appointed him seneschal (steward), lieutenant of South Wales, and tutor to the prince of Wales (1402). In July, 1403, Worcester surprised the king by joining his kinsmen in open revolt against the crown. Captured in the subsequent battle of Shrewsbury, Worcester was beheaded.
Worcester, city (1991 pop. 75,466) and district, Worcestershire, W central England, on the Severn River. The making of porcelain, gloves, and sauces are long-established industries; metal goods and machines are also manufactured. The site became a bishopric c.680. Worcester's cathedral is chiefly 14th cent., with a Norman crypt and tombs; in it are held, alternately with Hereford and Gloucester, the Festivals of the Three Choirs. Several old parish churches and timbered houses remain. The Commandery, restored in 1954, was a hospital in the 11th cent. In the English civil war, Worcester was the scene of Oliver Cromwell's final victory with the complete rout of Charles II and the Scots in 1651. Two old public educational institutions are Royal Grammar School (13th cent.) and King's School (1541). The Worcester Journal, Britain's oldest surviving newspaper, was founded (1690) in the city.
Worcester, town (1991 pop. 117,159), Western Cape, SW South Africa. It produces wine and liquor and processes the fruits and vegetables of the surrounding farm region. There are also textile and metal industries. Worcester's large thermoelectric station powers the electrified railroad that runs through the nearby Hex River Mts. The town was founded in 1820 and was named for the Marquess of Worcester, governor of Cape of Good Hope Colony. A technical college and the Drostdy (1825), which is a national monument and the home of the Afrikaner Museum, are in Worcester.
Worcester, industrial city (1990 pop. 169,759), seat of Worcester co., central Mass., on the Blackstone River; inc. 1722. The canalization (1828) of the Blackstone River marked the beginning of Worcester's rapid industrial development. A port of entry, its manufactures include machinery, metal goods, chemicals, plastics, pharmaceuticals, glass, electrical equipment, textiles, clothing, and shoes. There is also a printing and publishing industry, and state hospitals add to the city's economy. Settled in 1673, Worcester suffered Native American attacks in 1675 and 1683. In Shays's Rebellion the courthouse was besieged (1786) by insurgents. The first woman's suffrage national convention was held (1850) in Worcester. Edward Everett Hale was pastor there from 1842 to 1856. Worcester is the seat of Clark Univ., the College of the Holy Cross, the Univ. of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, and Worcester State College. It has a number of notable museums, two zoos, and an annual music festival (dating from 1858). Also of interest is a huge three-level shopping center with a Plexiglas dome. Lake Quinsigamond and two state parks are in the vicinity.

City and administrative district (pop., 2001: 93,358), administrative and historic county of Worcestershire, west-central England. Located on the River Severn, it was settled before AD 680. During the Middle Ages it was an important wool town and also became known for its glove making. Oliver Cromwell and his Parliamentarian army routed Charles II and his Scottish army in the Battle of Worcester, effecting an end to the English Civil Wars. In 1751 John Wall founded the porcelain industry for which the town became famous, and in 1838 the condiment known as Worcestershire sauce was introduced there by Lea & Perrins. The town's noted cathedral (11th–14th century) contains the tombs of King John and Prince Arthur, the eldest son of Henry VII. Cathedral Grammar School and Royal Grammar School were founded in the 16th century.

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Worcester is a city and county town of Worcestershire, in the West Midlands of England. Worcester is situated some 30 miles (48 km) southwest of Birmingham, 29 miles (47 km) north of Gloucester, and has an estimated population of 94,300 people. The River Severn runs through the middle of the city, overlooked by the 12th century Worcester Cathedral.

The site of the final battle of the Civil War, Worcester was where Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army defeated King Charles I's Cavaliers, resulting in a twenty-year period where England and Wales became a republic. Worcester is also the home of Royal Worcester Porcelain and the late composer Sir Edward Elgar.

History

Occupation of the site of Worcester can be dated back to Neolithic times, a village surrounded by defensive ramparts having been founded on the eastern bank of the River Severn here in around 400 BC. The position, which commanded a ford on the river, was in the 1st century used by the Romans to establish what may at first have been a fort on the military route from Glevum (Gloucester) to Viroconium (Wroxeter) but which soon developed — as the frontier of the empire was pushed westwards — into an industrial town with its own pottery kilns and iron-smelting plants.

Roman Worcester (which may have been the Vertis mentioned in the 7th century Ravenna Cosmography) was a thriving trading and manufacturing centre for some three hundred years, though by the time of the Roman withdrawal from Britain in 407 it had dwindled considerably in size and is not recorded again until the mid-7th century when documents mention the Anglo-Saxon settlement. The fact that Worcester was chosen at this time—in preference to both the much larger Gloucester and the royal centre of Winchcombe—to be the Episcopal See of a new diocese covering the area suggests that there was a well established, and powerful, British Christian community living on the site when it fell into English hands.

The town was almost destroyed in 1041 after a rebellion against the punitive taxation of Harthacanute. The town was attacked several times (in 1139, 1150 and 1151) during "The Anarchy", i.e. civil war between King Stephen and Empress Matilda, daughter of Henry I. This is the background to the well-researched historical novel The Virgin in the Ice, part of Ellis Peters' "Cadfael" series, which begins with the words:

"It was early in November of 1139 that the tide of civil war, lately so sluggish and inactive, rose suddenly to wash over the city of Worcester, wash away half of its lifestock, property and women, and send all those of its inhabitants who could get away in time scurrying for their lives northwards away from the marauders". (These are mentioned as having arrived from Gloucester, leaving a long lasting legacy of bitterness between the two cities.)

By late medieval times the population had grown to around 10,000 as the manufacture of cloth started to become a large local industry. The town was designated a county corporate, giving it autonomy from local government.

Worcester was the site of the Battle of Worcester (September 3, 1651), when Charles II's attempt to regain the crown by force was decisively defeated, in the fields a little to the west and south of the city, near the village of Powick. After being defeated, Charles returned to his headquarters in what is now known as King Charles house in the Cornmarket, before fleeing in disguise to Boscobel House in Shropshire and his eventual escape to France. Worcester was one of the cities loyal to the King in that war, for which it was given the epithet "The Faithful City".

In 1670 the River Severn broke its banks and the subsequent flood was the worst ever seen by Worcester. A brass plate can be found on a wall on the path to the cathedral by the path along the river showing how high this flood went, and other flood heights of more recent times are also shown in stone bricks. The closest flood height to what is known as The Flood of 1670 was when the Severn flooded in the torrential rains of July 2007.

The Royal Worcester Porcelain Company factory was founded by Dr John Wall in 1750, although it no longer produces goods. A handful of decorators are still employed at the factory and the Museum is still open.

During the 18th century Worcester's trade languished compared to more modern towns of the West Midlands. The Worcester and Birmingham Canal opened in 1815 allowing Worcester goods to be transported to a larger conurbation.

The British Medical Association (BMA) is reputed to have been founded in the Board Room of the old Worcester Royal Infirmary building in Castle Street around 1860. This building has now been closed and (as of 2006) will be redeveloped as the University of Worcester city campus.

During World War II, the city was chosen to be the seat of an evacuated government in case of mass German invasion. The War Cabinet, along with Winston Churchill and some 16.000 state workers, would have moved to Hindlip House(now part of the complex forming the Headquarters of West Mercia Police), 3 miles north of Worcester, and Parliament would have temporarily seated in Stratford-upon-Avon.

In the 1950s and 1960s large areas of the medieval centre of Worcester were demolished and rebuilt as a result of decisions by town planners. There is still a significant area of medieval Worcester remaining, but it is a small fraction of what was present before the redevelopments.

The current city boundaries date from 1974, when the Local Government Act 1972 transferred the parishes of Warndon and St. Peter the Great County into the city.

Governance

In the 2007 election the City Council went from Conservative control to No Overall Control, however, the Conservative Party have the most seats overall with 17 out of 35 seats. Worcester has one member of Parliament, Michael Foster of the Labour Party, who represents the Worcester constituency.

Geography

Notable suburbs in Worcester include Claines, St Peter the Great, Red Hill and Ronkswood. Most of Worcester is on the eastern side of the River Severn; Henwick, Lower Wick and St John's are on the western side.

Demography

The 2001 census recorded Worcester had a population of 93353 with 96.5% White ethnicity including 94.2% White British, greater than the national average. The largest religious groups are Christian (77%) and No Religion or Not Stated (21%) with other religions totalling less than 2%. Ethnic minorities include people of Chinese, Indian, Pakistani, Italian and Polish origin, with the largest single minority group being the ethnic Pakistani population of around 1200 people (around 1.3%). This has led to Worcester containing a small but diverse range of religious groups; as well as the commanding Worcester Cathedral (Church of England), there are also Catholic and Baptist churches, a large centre for The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons), an Islamic mosque, and a number of smaller interest groups regarding Eastern Religions such as Buddhism and the Hare Krishnas.

Economy

Industry is now quite varied. In the 19th and early twentieth century, Worcester was a major centre for glove manufacture, but this has declined greatly. The late-Victorian period saw the growth of ironfounders, like Heenan & Froude, Hardy & Padmore and McKenzie & Holland and the inter-war years saw the rapid growth of engineering, producing machine tools James Archdale, H.W.Ward, castings for the motor industry Worcester Windshields and Casements, mining machinery MECO and open-top cans Williamsons. Still located in the city are the Royal Worcester porcelain factory (near the cathedral), and, somewhat out of the centre, the factory that makes Worcester's most famous product, Lea & Perrins Worcestershire sauce. The engineering industry is still represented by Joy Mining Machinery, of the United States, which has its UK manufacturing headquarters in the St. Johns area, and by Carnaud Metalbox, part of Crown Holdings, also of the United States, which has its seaming systems division located in the Perry Wood district. The foundry heritage of the city is represented by Morganite Crucible at Norton which produces graphitic shaped products and cements for use in the modern industry. The Kays mail order business was founded in Worcester in the 1880s and operated from numerous premises in the city until 2007. Its former warehouse building was knocked down in 2008. Worcester is the home of what is claimed to be the oldest newspaper in the world, Berrow's Worcester Journal, which traces its descent from a newssheet that started publication in 1690. The city is also a major retail centre with several covered shopping centres that has most major chains represented. Worcester Bosch Group is in Warndon Villages. Another of Worcester's long-standing companies is Froude Hofmann, originally named Heenan & Froude. This engineering company has occupied several sites around Worcester including buildings close to Shrub Hill railway station and Worcester City Football Club. They are currently located on Blackpole Trading Estate East.

Like many other town and cities Worcester has the traditional ‘High Street’, though in Worcester’s case that is the actual street name of the main shopping thoroughfare. High Street is home to the major stores. Part of the High Street was revamped in 2005 amid much controversy, many of the issues focussing on the felling of long-standing trees, the duration of the works (caused by the weather and an archaeological find) and the removal of flagstones outside the City’s 18th Century Guildhall. However, the revamped area has been mostly praised for its appearance, openness and brightness compared to the previous look. The other main thoroughfares are The Shambles and Broad Street, while The Cross (and its immediate surrounding area) is seen as the city’s financial centre with the majority of Worcester’s main bank branches located here.

There are three main shopping centres, those being CrownGate, Cathedral Plaza and Reindeer Court. CrownGate is the largest and is split in to two centres. Both centres incorporate and in some cases back on to major stores. CrownGate also includes an outdoor market which was previously located in Cornmarket, and as such often referred to at The Corn Market despite its current location. Cathedral Plaza is the next largest and was called the Lychgate Shopping Centre prior to its revamp and current, and somewhat, controversial name.

Landmarks

There are three main parks in Worcester, these being Cripplegate Park, Gheluvelt Park and Fort Royal Park, the latter being on one of the battles sites of the English Civil War.

Gheluvelt Park was opened as a memorial to commemorate the Worcestershire Regiment's 2nd Battalion after their part in the Battle of Gheluvelt, during World War I.

There are also two large woodlands in the city, those being Perry Wood, at 12 hectares, and Nunnery Wood, covering 21 hectares. Perry Wood is often said to be the place where Oliver Cromwell met and made a pact with the devil. Nunnery Wood is an integral part of the adjacent and popular Worcester Woods Country Park, itself next door to County Hall on the east side of the city.

Probably the most famous landmark in Worcester is its imposing Worcester cathedral. The current building, formally named The Cathedral Church of Christ and the Blessed Virgin Mary, was begun in 1084 while its crypt dates from the 10th Century. The chapter house is the only circular one in the country while the cathedral also has the distinction of having the tomb of King John.

Transport

The M5 Motorway runs north-south to the east of the urban area, and is accessed by Junction 6 (Worcester North) and Junction 7 (Worcester South). This makes the city relatively easily accessible by car to most parts of the country, including London which is only 120 miles/2 & half hours away (via the M5, M42 and M40).

Several A roads pass through the city. The A449 road runs south-west to Malvern and north to Kidderminster. The A44 runs south-east to Evesham and west to Leominster and Aberystwyth and crosses Worcester Bridge. The A38 trunk road runs south to Tewkesbury and Gloucester and north-north-east to Droitwich and Birmingham. The A4103 goes west-south-west to Hereford. The A422 heads east to Alcester, branching from the A44 a mile east of the M5. The city is encompassed by a partial ring road (A4440) which is formed, rather inconsistently, by single and dual carriageways. The A4440 provides a second road bridge across the Severn (Carrington Bridge) just west of the A4440-A38 junction.

The city is served by 2 stations, Worcester Foregate Street and Worcester Shrub Hill. Although featuring 2 tracks Foregate Street actually consists of 2 single working tracks, one of which forms part of the Birmingham-Malvern-Hereford line while the other is the end of the Cotswold Line, which Shrub Hill also serves. Both stations frequently serve Birmingham and nearby towns/cities. London is also served frequently by both stations via the Cotswold Line and, infrequently, via the Birmingham-Bristol/Gloucester-Swindon/Bristol-London lines. Train services to/from London are operated by First Great Western.

Although connected to an Inter City mainline only 2 miles away, in this case the Birmingham-Bristol 'Cross Country' line, Worcester is not served by the Inter City CrossCountry service. This makes Worcestershire the only county in England where 'Cross Country' services pass through but do not stop in during normal scheduled timetables. However, the proposed new station, Worcestershire Parkway will end this. Being the bigger of the 2 stations, and due to its location, Shrub Hill is often used as a stabling point and a through route for freight trains.

The main operator of bus services in and around the city is First's First Wyvern which prior to mergers and acquisitions was once Midland Red West, itself one of the 5 companies that was formed from the split of the massive Midland Red operation prior to deregulation. A handful of other smaller operators provide services in Worcester, most notably Astons (Veolia) and Bromyard Omnibus Company. The terminus/interchange for many bus services in Worcester is CrownGate Bus Station located in the City Centre.

Worcestershire County Council operates the W1 bus service with a new fleet of high specification Mercedes Citaro vehicles. The W1 service is a frequent and direct limited stop service between the Worcester North (Perdiswell) Park & Ride site and CrownGate Bus Station. The service runs Monday to Saturday, from 7am to 7pm at a high frequency. The journey between the Park and Ride site and Worcester City Centre takes approximately ten minutes.

The buses stop at: · Worcester North (Perdiswell) Park & Ride Site · St Stephen’s Church · St George’s Square · Little London, Royal Grammar School · Foregate Street Rail Station · Worcester (Crowngate) Bus Station

Additionally, the Worcester Sixways Park and Ride site (adjacent to Junction 6 of the M5) is due to open in late 2008.

Education

Worcester is home to the University of Worcester (UW), which was awarded university status in 2005 by HM Privy Council. From 1997 to 2005 it was known as University College Worcester (UCW) and prior to 1997 it was known as Worcester College of Higher Education. The University is also home to the independent Worcester Students Union institution. The city is also home to two colleges, Worcester Sixth Form College and Worcester College of Technology.

High Schools

The High schools located in the city are Bishop Perowne CofE College, Blessed Edward Oldcorne Catholic College, Christopher Whitehead Language College, Elgar Technology College, Nunnery Wood High School and New College Worcester which caters for blind and partially sighted students from the ages of 11 to 18.

Public Schools

Worcester is also the seat of three public schools, The Royal Grammar School and Alice Ottley School have recently merged to form the Royal Grammar School Worcester and Alice Ottley School, Worcester aka RGSAO. The King's School, Worcester was re-founded in 1541 under King Henry VIII. Saint Mary's Convent School, now the only all-girls school in the city, is the third private school in the city.

Sport

Notable people

Probably Worcester's most famous citizen was composer Sir Edward Elgar, whose father ran a music shop at the end of the High Street; a statue of Elgar stands near the original location of that shop. His birthplace is a short way outside Worcester in the village of Broadheath.

Hannah Snell, famous for impersonating a man and being enlisted in the Royal Marines in the 18th century was born and raised here.

Sir Charles Hastings, founder of the British Medical Association lived in Worcester for most of his life - the newly built Worcestershire Royal Hospital stands in a road named in his honour.

Philip Henry Gosse, naturalist, was born in the city in 1810.

Sir Thomas Brock, a sculptor most famous for the Imperial Victoria Memorial in London was born here in 1847.

Civil engineer Edward Leader Williams, designer of the Manchester Ship Canal, was born and raised in Worcester, residing at Diglis House (now the Diglis House Hotel) with his brother, noted landscape artist Benjamin Williams Leader. William Morris, Lord Nuffield, automobile manufacturer, spent the first three years of his life in the city.

Poet and author Reverend Geoffrey Anketell Studdert Kennedy, famously known as "Woodbine Willy", was for some time the Vicar of St. Pauls Church in the city. He rose to fame during World War I when he became an army chaplain, his sermons and poetry helping boost morale to the troops. He acquired his nickname from his habit of handing out "Woodbine" cigarettes to the men in the trenches.

Writers Mrs. Henry Wood and Fay Weldon were born here.

Minimalist composer John Adams was born here.

Worcester was home to electronic music producer and Aphex Twin collaborator Mike Paradinas and his record label Planet Mu, until the label relocated to London in 2007.

Cyclist Ernest Payne was born in Worcester and rode for the local Worcester St Johns Cycling Club. He won a gold medal in the team pursuit at the 1908 Summer Olympics in London.

Worcester is also the home town of aviatrix Sheila Scott.

See also People from Worcester.

Culture

Every three years, Worcester becomes home to the Three Choirs Festival, which dates back to the 18th century and is credited with being the oldest music festival in Europe. The location of the festival rotates each year between the Cathedral Cities of the Three Counties - Gloucester, Hereford and Worcester. Famous for its championing of English music, especially that of Elgar, Vaughan Williams and Gustav Holst, Worcester is next scheduled to host the festival in August 2008.

The Worcester Festival is a relatively new venture established in 2003. Held in late August, the festival consists of a variety of music, theatre, cinema and workshops, as well as the already established Beer Festival, which now runs under the Worcester Festival name.

The Victorian-themed Christmas Fayre is a major source of tourism every December. Elton John came to the Worcestershire Cricket Ground, New Road on Saturday 9 June 2006.

The 8th CAMRA Worcester Beer and Cider festival took place for three days from the 17 August 2006 and was held as usual on Pitchcroft Race Course. On entry there is a choice between a (free) half or pint glass, with this year's having orange writing.

Famous 18th century actress Sarah Siddons made her acting debut here at the Theatre Royal in Angel Street. Her sister, the novelist Ann Julia Kemble Hatton, otherwise known as Ann of Swansea, was born in the city. Matilda Alice Powles, better known as Vesta Tilley, a leading male impersonator and music hall artiste was born in Worcester.

In present-day Worcester the Swan Theatre stages a mixture of professional touring and local amateur productions. The Countess of Huntingdon's Hall is a historic church now used as venue for an eclectic range of musical performances, while the Marrs Bar is a venue for gigs and stand-up comedy. Worcester also boasts two multi-screen cinemas (a six screen Vue Cinema complex located on Friar Street and an Odeon Cinema, boasting seven screens, at the heart of the city on Forgate Street).

In the northern suburbs of the city is the Art Deco Northwick Cinema. Built in 1938 it contains one of the only two remaining interiors in Britain designed by John Alexander (the original perspective drawings are still held by RIBA). It was a Bingo Hall from 1966 to 1982 and then empty until 1991; it was then run as a music venue until 1996, and was empty again until Autumn 2006 when it became an antiques and lifestyle centre, owned by Grey's Interiors, who were previously located in The Tything.

There are also a number of Arts organisations in Worcester, one of which is C&T. Based at the University and also Bishop Perowne Performing Arts College is C&T [formerly Collar & TIE]. C&T is an educational theatre company that specialises in theatre for young people tackling topical issues through a unique blend of drama and new media technologies.

See also

References

External links

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