There are only about nine out of town enclosed shopping centres in the UK (as opposed to open air retail parks, which do not count as shopping centres in British English) even though they do in American English. Under current policy, no more will be built. All other British shopping centres are in town and city centres.
In the UK there were no out of town shopping centres until the 1980s. In the 1960s, most town and city centres had seen the development of a major shopping precinct. Birmingham had the Bull Ring Centre, Manchester, the Arndale Centre and Leeds, the Merrion Centre. There are still few out of town major shopping centres in the UK, most cities will not have one. In some cases such as Meadowhall in Sheffield, they were built because of available land and labour due to the demise of the steel industry in the area. The Trafford Centre in Manchester was built on the surplus land belonging to the Manchester Ship Canal. In the case of the White Rose Centre in Leeds, it was not due to industrial downfall that it was built, but high retail space prices in the city centre and available contaminated land, close to local motorways, of the right size, and unsuitable for house building. Had the Morley sewage works not come available it is unlikely such a centre would be in Leeds.