Winnipeg is the capital and largest city in the Canadian province of Manitoba, and 7th largest municipality in Canada with a population of 633,451. As of the 2006 census the Winnipeg Capital Regions total population was 730,305.
The city is located near the longitudinal centre of North America, at the confluence of the historic Red and Assiniboine Rivers, a point now commonly known as The Forks. Winnipeg is located within the prairies of Western Canada, in a native tallgrass prairie ecosystem.
The city boasts such culture as the Royal Winnipeg Ballet and the Winnipeg Symphony Orchestra. It is home to historic architecture; distinctive neighbourhoods; scenic waterways; a heritage river; and numerous parks, including Assiniboine Park, and Kildonan Park.
Winnipeg also lies in close proximity to pristine Canadian Shield rivers and hundreds of lakes, including Lake Winnipeg (the world's 11th largest lake), as well as Lake of the Woods and Lake Manitoba.
Winnipeg has even laid claim to the title of World's Longest Skating Rink, along the Red and Assiniboine rivers.
Winnipeg lies at the confluence of the Assiniboine River and the Red River, known as The Forks, a historic focal point on canoe river routes travelled by Aboriginal peoples for thousands of years. The name Winnipeg is a transcription of a western Cree word meaning "muddy waters"; the general area was populated for thousands of years by First Nations. In prehistory, through oral stories, archaeology, petroglyphs, rock art, and ancient artifacts, it is known that natives would use the area for camps, hunting, fishing, trading, and further north, agriculture. The first farming in Manitoba appeared to be along the Red River, near Lockport, Manitoba, where maize (corn) and other seed crops were planted before contact with Europeans. For thousands of years there have been humans living in this region, and there are many archaeological clues about their ways of life. The rivers provided transportation far and wide and linked many peoples-such as the Assiniboine, Ojibway, Anishinaabe, Mandan, Sioux, Cree, Lakota, and others—for trade and knowledge sharing. Ancient mounds were once made near the waterways, similar to that of the mound builders of the south. Lake Winnipeg was considered to be an inland sea, with important river links to the mountains out west, the Great Lakes to the east, and the Arctic Ocean in the north. The Red River linked ancient northern and southern peoples along the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers. The first maps of some areas were made on birch bark by the Ojibway, which helped fur traders find their way along the rivers and lakes.
The first French officer arrived in the area in 1738. Sieur de la Vérendrye built the first fur trading post on the site (Fort Rouge), which was later abandoned. The French traded in the area for several decades before Hudson Bay traders arrived. The first English traders visited the area about the year 1767. Fort Gibraltar was built by the North West Company in 1809, and Fort Douglas was built by the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) in 1812. The two companies fought fiercely over trade in the area, and each destroyed some of the other's forts over the course of several battles. In 1821, the Hudson's Bay and North West Companies ended their long rivalry with a merger.
Fort Gibraltar, within the site of present-day Winnipeg, was renamed Fort Garry in 1822 and became the leading post in the region for the Hudson’s Bay Company. Fort Garry was destroyed in an 1826 flood and rebuilt in 1835. It played a small role in the fur trade, but remained the residence of the Governor of the company for many years and became a part of the major first colony and settlement in western Canada.
In 1869–70, Winnipeg was the site of the Red River Rebellion, a conflict between the local provisional government of Métis, led by Louis Riel, and the newcomers from eastern Canada; General Garnet Wolseley was sent to put down the rebellion. This rebellion led directly to Manitoba's entry into the Confederation as Canada's fifth province in 1870, and on November 8, 1873, Winnipeg was incorporated as a city. In 1876, three years after the city's incorporation, the post office officially adopted the name "Winnipeg."
Winnipeg experienced a boom during the 1890s and the first two decades of the 20th century, and the city's population grew from 25,000 in 1891 to more than 179,000 in 1921. As immigration increased during this period, Winnipeg took on its distinctive multicultural character. The Manitoba Legislative Building reflects the optimism of the boom years. Built mainly of Tyndall Stone and opened in 1920, its dome supports a bronze statue finished in gold leaf titled, "Eternal Youth and the Spirit of Enterprise" (commonly known as the "Golden Boy"). The Manitoba Legislature was built in the neoclassical style that is common to many other North American state and provincial legislative buildings of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The Legislature was built to accommodate representatives for three million people, which was the expected population of Manitoba at the time.
Winnipeg faced financial difficulty when the Panama Canal opened in 1914. The canal reduced reliance on Canada's rail system for international trade, and the increase in ship traffic helped Vancouver surpass Winnipeg to become Canada's third-largest city in the 1960s.
The Depression ended when World War II broke out in 1939. Then, thousands of Canadians volunteered to join the armed forces. In Winnipeg, the old established armouries of Minto, Tuxedo (Fort Osborne), and McGregor were so crowded that the military had to take over other buildings to increase capacity.
Winnipeg played a large part in the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan (BCATP). The mandate of the BCATP was to train flight crews away from the battle zones in Europe. Pilots, navigators, bombardiers, wireless operators, air gunners, and flight engineers all passed through Winnipeg on their way to the various air schools across western Canada; Winnipeg served as a headquarters for Command No. 2.
To prevent future floods, the Red River Basin Investigation recommended a system of flood control measures, including multiple diking systems and a floodway to divert the Red River around Winnipeg; this prompted construction of the Red River Floodway under Premier Dufferin Roblin. See also the Flood of the Century — 1997 Red River Flood, which was just as bad as the 1950 flood. The floodway was pushed to its limits in 1997, which led to the Red River Floodway Expansion, set to be completed in late 2010 at a final cost of more than $665,000,000 CAD.
In 1979, the Eaton's catalogue building was converted into the first downtown mall in the city. It was called Eaton Place, but would change its name to Cityplace following the controversial demolition of the empty Eaton's store in 2002.
Immediately following the 1979 energy crisis, Winnipeg experienced a severe economic downturn in advance of the early 1980s recession. Throughout the recession, the city incurred closures of prominent businesses such as the Winnipeg Tribune and the Swift's and Canada Packers meat packing plants. In 1981, Winnipeg was one of the first cities in Canada to sign a tripartite agreement to redevelop its downtown area. The three levels of government—federal, provincial and municipal—have contributed over $271-million to the development needs of downtown Winnipeg over the past 20 years. The funding was instrumental in attracting Portage Place mall, which comprises the headquarters of Investors Group, the offices of Air Canada, and several apartment complexes.
In 1993, feeling that their community needs were not being fulfilled, the residents of Headingley seceded from Winnipeg and officially became incorporated as a municipality.
Construction of a new City Hall commenced in 1875. The building proved to be a structural nightmare, and eventually had to be held up by props and beams. The building was eventually demolished so that a new City Hall could be built in 1883.
A new City Hall building was constructed in 1886. It was a "gingerbread" building, built in Victorian grandeur, and symbolized Winnipeg's coming of age at the end of the 19th century. The building stood for nearly 80 years. There was a plan to replace it around the World War I era (during the construction of the Manitoba Legislative Building.), but the war delayed that process. In 1958, falling plaster almost hit visitors to the City Hall building. The tower eventually had to be removed, and in 1962, the whole building was torn down.
The Winnipeg City Council embraced the idea of a "Civic Centre" as a replacement for the old city hall. The concept originally called for an administrative building and a council building, with a courtyard in between. Eventually, a police headquarters and remand centre (the Public Safety Building) and parkade were added to the plans. The four buildings were completed in 1964 in the brutalist style, at a cost of $8.2 million. The Civic Centre and the Manitoba Centennial Centre were connected by underground tunnels in 1967.
The city is a single-tier municipality, governed by a mayor-council system. The structure of the municipal government is set out by the province of Manitoba in the City of Winnipeg Act. The mayor is elected by direct popular vote to serve as the chief executive of the city. At Council meetings, the mayor has one of 16 votes. The City Council is a unicameral legislative body, representing geographical wards throughout the city.
Statistics Canada shows that in 2005, Manitoba had the highest decline of overall crime in Canada, at nearly 8%. Winnipeg dropped from having the highest rate of murder per capita in the country; that distinction went to Edmonton but ultimately returned to Winnipeg as of 2007. However, given the relatively small number of annual murders, even a small increase or decrease in the absolute numbers can translate into a large increase or decrease in the percentage rate. Manitoba did continue to lead all other provinces in auto thefts, almost all of it centred in Winnipeg.
To combat auto theft, Manitoba Public Insurance (MPI) established financial incentives for motor vehicle owners to install ignition immobilisers in their vehicles, and now requires owners of high-risk vehicles to install them.
Winnipeg is protected by the Winnipeg Police Service, which has over 1350 members.
Winnipeg is situated in the Canadian Prairies of Western Canada; near the geographical centre of North America; approximately north of the border with the United States; and south of Lake Winnipeg. It is situated in the rich agricultural land of the Red River of the North. According to the Census geographic units of Canada, the city has a total area of 464.01 km² (179.2 sq mi), making it by far the largest city in the Red River Valley.
Winnipeg has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb), USDA Plant Hardiness Zone 3a. Summers are warm to hot and often humid, Spring and autumn are highly variable seasons, and its winters are long and cold. Because of the extremely flat, open landscape; Winnipeg lies exposed to numerous weather systems throughout the year; including cold arctic high pressure systems from the northwest during the winter season; and hot, humid weather drawn northward from the Gulf of Mexico during the summer season, often resulting in severe nighttime thunderstorms. Temperatures usually reach or higher on 14 days a year, however, with the humidex it reaches temperatures at or above on 45 days a year. Winnipeg usually has 27 days with thunderstorms per year. A typical year will see an extreme range of temperatures from -35°C (-31°F) to 35°C (95°F), though both colder and warmer temperatures have been recorded.
The lowest temperature ever recorded in Winnipeg was , on December 24, 1879. The coldest wind chill reading ever recorded was , on February 1, 1996. The highest temperature recorded in Winnipeg was 42.2 °C (108 °F) on July 11, 1936. The highest humidex reading recorded in Winnipeg was on July 25, 2007, although just southwest of the city, in the town of Carman, Manitoba broke Canada's all time humidex record, with a high of , July 25, 2007.
Winnipeg is a very sunny city with an average of 317 sunny days per year; and all seasons are characterized by an abundance of sunshine. Winnipeg has the second-clearest skies year-round and is the second sunniest city in Canada in the spring and winter. Portage la Prairie, west of the city has the most sunny days in warm months in Canada.
The city often receives an Indian Summer, usually after the first frost in mid to late October. Winnipeg is also known as a windy city. The average annual wind speed is 16.9 km/h (10.5 mph), predominantly from the south. The city has experienced wind gusts of up to 129 km/h (80 mph). April is the windiest month, and July the least windy. Tornadoes are not uncommon in the area, particularly in the spring and summer months.
The city is directly connected to the United States via Provincial Trunk Highway 75 (PTH 75) (a northern continuation of I-29 and US 75). The highway runs to Emerson, Manitoba, and is the busiest Canada – United States border crossing between Vancouver and the Great Lakes. Much of the commercial traffic that crosses through Emerson, either originates from or is destined for Winnipeg. Inside the city, the highway is locally known as Pembina Highway (Route 42).
Winnipeg's airport, renamed Winnipeg James Armstrong Richardson International Airport in December 2006, is currently under redevelopment. A new terminal building is scheduled for completion by 2009, along with an office tower and a second hotel. The field was Canada's first international airport when it opened in 1928 as Stevenson Aerodrome. The airport is the 7th busiest in Canada in terms of passenger traffic and, along with Winnipeg/St. Andrews Airport, is among the top 20 in terms of aircraft movements.
Winnipeg is unique among North American cities of its size in that it does not have freeways within the urban area. Beginning in 1958, the primarily suburban Metropolitan council proposed a system of freeways, including one that would have bisected the downtown area.
A four-lane highway, called the Perimeter Highway, was built in 1969. It serves as a beltway, by-passing the city, with at-grade intersections and some interchanges. It allows travellers on the Trans-Canada Highway to completely avoid the city.
The city has "major arterial roads"; examples are Route 165 (Bishop Grandin Blvd.) and Route 90 (Brookside Blvd., Oak Point Hwy., King Edward St., Century St., Kenaston Blvd.).
Winnipeg Bus Terminal, located in downtown Winnipeg, offers domestic and international service by Greyhound Canada, Jefferson Lines, Grey Goose Bus Lines, Beaver Bus Lines, and Brandon Air Shuttle. This terminal will move to a new location near the airport next year.
Winnipeg has also embarked on an ambitious wayfinding program, erecting new signage at strategic downtown locations; the intention is to make it easier for travellers, specifically tourists, to locate services and attractions.
Winnipeg has had public transit since 1882, starting with horse-drawn streetcars. They were replaced by electric trolley cars which ran from 1891 to 1955, supplemented by motor buses since 1918, and electric trolleybuses from 1938 to 1970. Winnipeg Transit now operates entirely with diesel buses. For decades, the city has explored the idea of a rapid transit link, either bus or rail, from downtown to the University of Manitoba's suburban campus.
Winnipeg is a railway hub and is served by VIA Rail, Canadian National Railway (CN), Canadian Pacific Railway (CP), Burlington Northern Santa Fe Manitoba, and the Central Manitoba Railway (CEMR). It is the only city between Vancouver and Thunder Bay, Ontario with direct U.S. connections.
Winnipeg is an important regional centre of commerce, industry, culture, finance, and government.
According to the Conference Board of Canada, Winnipeg had the third-fastest growing economy among Canada's major cities in 2007; with a real GDP growth at 3.7%.
In 2003 and 2004, Canadian Business magazine ranked Winnipeg in the top 10 cities for business. In 2006, Winnipeg was ranked by KPMG as one of the lowest cost locations to do business in Canada. As with much of Western Canada, in 2007, Winnipeg experienced both a building and real estate boom. In May 2007, the Winnipeg Real Estate Board reported the best month in its 104-year history in terms of sales and volume.
Approximately 375,000 people are employed in Winnipeg and the surrounding area. Some of Winnipeg's largest employers are either government or government-funded institutions: the Province of Manitoba, the City of Winnipeg, the University of Manitoba, the Health Sciences Centre, the Casinos of Winnipeg, and Manitoba Hydro. Approximately 54,000 people or 14% of the work force are employed in the public sector.
There are several large private sector employers, as well: Manitoba Telecom Services, Canwest, Palliser Furniture, Great-West Life Assurance, Motor Coach Industries, Convergys Corporation, New Flyer Industries, Boeing Canada Technology, Bristol Aerospace, Nygård International, Canad Inns and Investors Group.
A number of large privately held family-owned companies operate out of Winnipeg. The most famous of these is James Richardson & Sons. The Richardson Building at Portage and Main was the first skyscraper to grace that corner. Other private companies include Ben Moss Jewellers, Frantic Films and Paterson Grain.
The Royal Canadian Mint located in eastern Winnipeg (on Route 20 (Lagimodière Blvd)) is where all circulating coinage in Canada is produced. The plant, established in 1975, also produces coins for many other countries in the world.
Winnipeg is home to several government research labs. The National Microbiology Laboratory is Canada's front line in its response to infectious diseases and one of only a handful of Biosafety level 4 microbiology laboratories in the world. The National Research Council also has the Institute for Biodiagnostics laboratory located in the downtown area.
|multiple responses included|
|total Aboriginal identity||68,405||10.19|
|North American Indian||26,000||3.99|
According to the 2006 Census, there were 633,451 people residing in Winnipeg itself and a total of 694,668 inhabitants in the Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area on 16 May 2006, and 711,455 in the Winnipeg Capital Region making it Manitoba’s largest city and the eighth largest CMA in Canada.
Of the city population, 48.3% were male and 51.7% were female, and 24.3% were 19 years old or younger. People aged by 20 and 39 years accounted for 27.4%, while those between 40 and 64 made up 34.0% of the population. The average age of a Winnipegger in May 2006 was 38.7, compared to the average of 39.5 for Canada as a whole.
Between the censuses of 2001 and 2006, Winnipeg's population increased by 2.2%, compared to the average of 2.6 for Manitoba and 5.4% for Canada. The population density of the city of Winnipeg averaged 1,365.2 people per square kilometre, compared with an average of 3.5 for Manitoba.
Of Winnipeg’s total population, 61,217 citizens live in the city’s Census Metropolitan Area, which apart from Winnipeg includes the Rural municipalities of East St. Paul, Headingley, Ritchot, Rosser, Springfield, St. Clements, St. François Xavier, Taché and West St. Paul, and the Aboriginal community of Brokenhead.
Education is a responsibility of the provincial government in Canada.
In Manitoba, education is governed principally by The Public Schools Act and The Education Administration Act, as well as regulations made under both Acts. Rights and responsibilities of the Minister of Education, Citizenship and Youth and the rights and responsibilities of school boards, principals, teachers, parents and students are set out in the legislation.
The University of Manitoba is the largest university in the province of Manitoba, the most comprehensive and the only research-intensive post-secondary educational institution. It was founded in 1877, making it Western Canada’s first university. In a typical year, the university has an enrolment of 24,542 undergraduate students and 3,021 graduate students.
The University of Winnipeg received its charter in 1967 but its roots date back more than 130 years. The founding colleges were Manitoba College 1871, and Wesley College 1888, which merged to form United College in 1938. Until 2007, it was an undergraduate institution with a faculty of arts and science that offered some joint graduate studies programs. It now offers graduate programs exclusive to the university. In 2008, the university plans on creating a new faculty of business consisting of economics and business programs hived off from the faculty of arts.
Winnipeg is also home to numerous private schools, both religious and secular.
There are five post-secondary institutions in Winnipeg
|Winnipeg Blue Bombers||Canadian Football League||Canad Inns Stadium||1930||10|
|Manitoba Moose||American Hockey League||MTS Centre||1996||0|
|Winnipeg Goldeyes||Northern League||Canwest Park||1994||1|
Winnipeg is well known for its arts and culture.
The city is home to several large festivals. The Winnipeg Fringe Theatre Festival is North America's second largest Fringe Festival, held every July. The Winnipeg International Writers Festival (THIN AIR) rivals similar festivals in Calgary and Vancouver. Other festivals include Folklorama, the Jazz Winnipeg Festival, the Winnipeg Folk Festival, the Winnipeg Music Festival, the Red River Exhibition, and Festival du Voyageur.
Since 1999, Winnipeg has achieved acclaim for being the "Slurpee Capital of the World".
Winnipeg is well known for its murals. Many buildings in the downtown area and extending into some suburban areas have murals painted on the sides of buildings. Although some are advertisements for shops and other businesses, many are historical paintings, school art projects, or downtown beautification projects. Murals can also be found on several of the downtown traffic light switch posts and fire hydrants.
Winnipeg also has a thriving film community, beginning as early as 1897 with the films of James Freer to the production of local independent films of today, such as those by Guy Maddin. It has also supported a number of Hollywood productions, including Shall We Dance? (2004), the Oscar nominated film Capote (2005), The Assassination of Jesse James by the Coward Robert Ford (2006), The Horsemen (2008) and X2 (2003) had parts filmed in the province. Several locally-produced and national television dramas have also been shot in Winnipeg. The National Film Board of Canada and the Winnipeg Film Group have produced numerous award-winning films.
Guy Maddin's My Winnipeg, an independent film released in 2008, is a poetic and comedic rumination on the city's history. It features archival footage and contemporary imagery blended seamlessly into an extended autobiographical goodbye letter.
Winnipeg is also associated with various music acts. Among the most notable are Neil Young, The Guess Who, Bachman-Turner Overdrive, Streetheart, Harlequin, Chantal Kreviazuk, Bif Naked, Comeback Kid, The Waking Eyes, Econoline Crush, Brent Fitz, Jet Set Satellite, the New Meanies, Propagandhi, The Weakerthans, The Perpetrators, Crash Test Dummies, Christine Fellows, The Wailin' Jennys and The Duhks.
Winnipeg is the subject of the song "One Great City!" by The Weakerthans. The song makes allusion to the slow growth and lost industry in the town. The title of the song is the slogan on signs welcoming visitors to Winnipeg. The city is also mentioned in Neil Young's "Don't Be Denied". Aaron Funk, a Winnipeg-based Breakcore artist better known as Venetian Snares, released a concept album in 2005 based on his hatred of Winnipeg.
Winnipeg has a broad selection of restaurants and specialty food stores. Many ethnic cuisines are well represented, including those of the local Ukrainian, Jewish, Mennonite, Chinese, Italian, Korean, Greek, Thai, French, Vietnamese, and Filipino populations.
Regional dishes include Winnipeg goldeye, a kind of smoked fish, fresh pickerel fillets and pickerel cheeks, and an East European style of light rye bread called Winnipeg rye. Also associated with Winnipeg are nips (hamburgers) from Salisbury House restaurant, Jeanne's cake, Russian mints from Morden's Chocolate, Old Dutch potato chips, and beer from Half Pints and Fort Garry breweries.
An E. H. Shepard painting of "Winnie the Pooh" is the only known oil painting of Winnipeg’s famous bear cub. It was purchased at an auction for $285,000 in London, England, late in 2000. The painting is displayed in the Pavilion Gallery in Assiniboine Park.
Winnipeg is the future home of the Canadian Museum for Human Rights. The start of construction is contingent on continued efforts to raise money in 2008. It will be the first Canadian national museum outside of the National Capital Region. The museum will be located at The Forks. The Forks, where the Red River and Assiniboine River meet, is Winnipeg's number one tourist attraction and brings locals and visitors alike to its shops, river walkways and festivals.
The Manitoba Museum is the largest museum in the province. It has nine galleries and includes a planetarium as well as a replica of the Nonsuch. It is one of the only attractions to receive the Michelin Guide highest rating as an attraction in Winnipeg.
The city is home to the Western Canada Aviation Museum, the second largest aviation museum in Canada. The museum is housed in a Trans-Canada Air Lines hangar and contains the most complete Vickers Viscount in the world along with the last remaining Fokker Universal.
The Costume Museum of Canada now resides in Winnipeg's Exchange District. After 23 years in outlying Dugald, the museum has recently relocated to the capital city with hopes to attract even more visitors. It is home to approximately 35,000 articles of clothing and represents about 400 years of fashion history in Canada.
The Winnipeg Firefighters Historical Society Museum housed in a former fire station contains memorabilia dating back to the beginning of the Winnipeg Fire Brigade in 1882, including fully operational fire apparatus such as a 1927 American LaFrance and a 1958 Mack truck.
Winnipeg is home to several of Canada's national historic sites including; The Forks, the Red River Floodway, the Fort Garry Hotel, Confederation Building, the Exchange District, Fort Douglas and Lower Fort Garry (from the original Fort Garry).
The Royal Winnipeg Ballet is Canada's oldest ballet and the longest continually operating ballet company in North America. It is the first Canadian company to tour Russia and Czechoslovakia and the first western company to tour Cuba. It is the only ballet company in Canada to receive a Royal charter in 1953 from Queen Elizabeth II.
The Manitoba Theatre Centre is Canada's first regional theatre. It was founded in 1957 and has produced just under 500 plays featuring actors such as Len Cariou, Gordon Pinsent, Keanu Reeves and William Hurt.
Winnipeg's large parks including Assiniboine Park, Kildonan Park and St. Vital Park, as well as the Assiniboine Forest, are major attractions. The Assiniboine Forest is home to a sizable urban deer herd. Located in Assiniboine Park is the minimum gauge railway, Assiniboine Valley Railway. Assiniboine Park also has a zoo, conservatory, and the Leo Mol sculpture garden.
Winnipeg is located only an hour or two of driving, from many large forests, lakes, parks, and beaches; in all directions; such as Whiteshell Provincial Park, Grand Beach Provincial Park, or Pembina Valley Provincial Park.
Canadian Forces Base Winnipeg, co-located at the Winnipeg James Armstrong Richardson International Airport, is home to many flight operations support divisions, as well as several training schools. It is also the headquarters of 1 Canadian Air Division (1CdnAirDiv, formerly Air Command Headquarters) and the Canadian North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) Region Headquarters. The base is supported by over 3,000 military personnel and civilian employees.
17 Wing of the Canadian Forces is based at CFB Winnipeg. The Wing comprises three squadrons and six schools. It also provides support to the Central Flying School. Excluding the three levels of government, 17 Wing is the fourth largest employer in the city.
The Wing also supports 113 units stretching from Thunder Bay, to the Saskatchewan/Alberta border and from the 49th parallel to the high Arctic. 17 Wing also acts as a deployed operating base for CF-18 Hornet fighter-bombers assigned to the Canadian NORAD Region.
Two squadrons based in the city are:
Winnipeg is home to a number of reserve units: The Royal Winnipeg Rifles and The Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders of Canada infantry (along with the The Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders of Canada Museum), 735 Communications Regiment, 17 Service Battalion, and 17 (Winnipeg) Field Ambulance at Minto Armoury, The Fort Garry Horse armoured reconnaissance regiment at McGregor Armoury, and HMCS Chippewa, original home to the Naval Museum of Manitoba, Canadian Naval Reserve.
For many years, Winnipeg was the home of The Second Battalion, Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry, or 2 PPCLI. Initially, the battalion was based at the Fort Osborne Barracks near present day Osborne Village. They eventually moved to the Kapyong Barracks located in the River Heights/Tuxedo part of Winnipeg. Since 2004, the 550 men and women of the battalion have operated out of CFB Shilo near Brandon.