A wine cellar
is a storage room for wine
, or more rarely in carboys
or plastic containers. In an active
wine cellar, important factors such as temperature and humidity are maintained by a climate control system. In contrast, passive
wine cellars are not climate-controlled, and are usually built underground to reduce temperature swings. An aboveground wine cellar is often called a wine room
, while a small wine cellar (less than 500 bottles) is sometimes termed a wine closet
Wine cellars protect alcoholic beverages
from potentially harmful external influences, providing darkness
and a constant temperature
. Wine is a natural, perishable food product. Left exposed to heat, light, vibration or fluctuations in temperature and humidity
, all types of wine can spoil. When properly stored, wines not only maintain their quality but many actually improve in aroma, flavor, and complexity as they mature.
Wine can be stored satisfactorily between 7-18 °C (45-65 °F) as long as any variations are gradual. A temperature of 13 °C (55 °F), much like what is found in the caves used to store wine in France, is ideal for both short-term storage and long-term aging of wine. Note that wine generally matures differently and more slowly at a lower temperature than it does at a higher temperature. Between 10-14 °C (50-57 °F), wines will age normally.
Active versus passive
Wine cellars can be either active or passively cooled. Active wine cellars are highly insulated
and need to be properly constructed. They require specialized wine cellar conditioning
and cooling systems to maintain the desired temperature and humidity. In a very dry climate, it may be necessary to actively humidify the air, but in most areas this is not necessary. Passive wine cellars must be located in naturally cool and damp areas with minor seasonal and diurnal temperature variations—for example, a basement in a temperate climate. Passive cellars may be less predictable, but cost nothing to operate and are not affected by power outages
Debate on humidity
Some wine experts debate the importance of humidity for proper wine storage. In the Wine Spectator
, writer Matt Kramer noted a French
study which claimed that the relative humidity
within a bottle is maintained 100% regardless of the closure
used or the orientation of the bottle. However, Alexis Lichine
says that low humidity can be an problem because it may cause organic corks to dry prematurely. An inch of gravel covering the floor periodically sprinkled with a little water was recommended to retain the desired humidity.
A wine rack is a storage device that holds bottles of wine (usually on their sides), and are often found in wine cellars.