is a list or register of persons who, for one reason or another, are being denied a particular privilege, service, mobility, access or recognition. As a verb
, to blacklist can mean to deny someone work in a particular field, or to ostracize
them from a certain social circle. Conversely, a whitelist
is a list or compilation or list identifying persons or organizations that are accepted, recognized, or privileged.
The term blacklisting
is generally used in a pejorative context, as it implies that someone has been prevented from having legitimate access to something due to the whims or judgments of another. For example, a person being served with a restraining order
for having threatened another person would not be considered a case of blacklisting. However, somebody who is fired for exposing poor working conditions in a particular company, and is subsequently blocked from finding work in that industry, may be considered to have been blacklisted. Blacklisting can and has been accomplished informally and by consensus of authority figures, and does not necessarily require a physical list or overt written record.
Blacklisting is also tactic used in economic warfare which can be used against neutral government and companies that operate therein. In order to compel a change in policies by neutral government and companies based there, one belligerent in a conflict may threaten to prohibit their operations after a conflict is over.
In American history, one of the most famous examples of blacklisting stemmed from an investigation launched in 1947 by the House Un-American Activities Committee
(HUAC) into Communist
influence on the motion picture industry. The first in the industry to be blacklisted, as a result of their refusal to provide evidence to HUAC, were a group known as the Hollywood Ten
, most of them screenwriters
, who had at one time or another been members of the American Communist Party
. Today, the best known of the Hollywood Ten is writer Dalton Trumbo
, who was barred from openly working in Hollywood
for over a dozen years as a result of his defiance of HUAC. (He continued to work under pseudonyms
and "fronts" until the revelation in 1960 that he had written the script for Spartacus
.) Actor John Garfield
was one of the more famous Hollywood performers to have been blacklisted by major American film studios as a direct result of HUAC investigations and hearings.
Blacklisting may sometimes result in a domino effect, as in the case of radio actress Madeline Lee. Both Lee and her husband, actor Jack Gilford, were blacklisted during the McCarthy era after it was revealed that Lee had given a party in her house to raise funds for a group later labeled as a Communist front. Though there was no suspicion that she had ever been involved in any putatively "subversive" political causes (and though her real name was spelled differently), Lee became the target of thousands of protest phone calls to her network. Another actress, Camilla Ashland, who appeared on the television show Danger, physically resembled Madeline Lee; though she had no political past, her network too became the target of protest phone calls. Madeline Pierce, a 20-year veteran of radio, who again had no political past, was also ultimately blacklisted.
The Blacklist Festival is a three-day tribute to Art & Film. The Festival is held each year in South Lake Tahoe, CA and was original started by a group of filmmakers and artists under the productions of 1134 Films. The objective of the festival is to present original and unapologetic art and films. The film screening and art display is held inside MontBlue Casino and the music, after party and awards are held at various local venues.
In computing, a blacklist is an access control
system which denies entry to a specific list (or a defined range) of users or programs.
Blacklisting is multiple providers denying care to a certain patient
or patients with a connotation of volition or willfulness. It is done in various ways for various reasons and is not new. In 1907 the Transvaal Medical Union in South Africa blacklisted patients if they could not pay cash in advance. That was a physical list kept by the community of physicians
. A physical list is not necessary to blacklist patients, but there have been other efforts to do that. For instance, in the United States the web site was set up to blacklist any patient who had filed a suit against a physician. That effort was extended off shore to a website that encourages doctors to consider avoiding patients who are listed in their database. Those both are physical lists that blacklist patients who have complained or sued their healthcare providers.
There are less formal and less visible blacklists as well. For instance, an organization called "Sufferers of Iatrogenic Neglect knows of 40 cases where patients claim they have suffered on two counts: one, from the original human medical error, and two, because they complained about it and as a result got blacklisted. In West London, Rafat Saeed had difficulty finding a GP and says, “… it is very easy for a doctor to blacklist a patient through the Family Health Services Authority” . Angelique Omega wrote in her blog, "I was once told in a phone call by a Renown E.R. nurse, after she very quickly looked up my name in their computer, that I'd better not ever show my face there ever again. This was after I had filed complaints …
Data sharing also can cause patients to become blacklisted. Data sharing makes it easy to get labeled as a "problem patient" without anyone adding a name to a list. Repeat patients who are misdiagnosed or undiagnosed, or patients with chronic conditions or mental illness, can get labeled as "problem patients" in computer systems such as HealthConnect or Epic that hold the records of patients and can make it increasingly difficult, if not impossible, to get appointments for care. Such systems have no borders making this a global problem .
Even without data sharing, collegial loyalty, watching each other's backs, can be enough to result in the denial of care to certain patients. Consider the patient who has been injured by a healthcare provider. Patients with iatrogenic illnesses often cannot get a record made of their injuries and often cannot get treatment. Trudy Newman in her article "Deadly Medical Practices" described the cause as being physicians having a stronger allegiance to each other than to their patients. They are reluctant to acknowledge the existence of iatrogenic injuries by diagnosing or treating them. A patient with iatrogenic injuries can go from doctor to doctor to doctor without getting diagnosed or treated and never know why. Without a list or any communication between physicians, collegial loyalty by itself results in patients with certain kinds of problems being blacklisted.
However, the term blacklist does connote volition or willfulness. A new and unrecognized disease resulting in patients being unable to find treatment might not be considered blacklisting unless inclination or personal belief or the equivalent had to do with why treatment either was not found or was unreasonably difficult to find.
In the UK the term blacklisted also is used in the NHS to denote blacklisted medicines that are not allowed to be prescribed on NHS prescriptions.
- James J. Lorence. The Suppression of Salt of the Earth. How Hollywood, Big Labor, and Politicians Blacklisted a Movie in Cold War America. University of New Mexico Press: 1999. ISBN 0-8263-2027-9 (cloth) ISBN 0-8263-2028-7 (paper)