Definitions

Willem

Willem

Janszoon, Willem fl. late 16th-early 17th cent., Dutch navigator and colonial governor; his name also appears was Jansz or Janssen. Janszoon served (1603-11, 1612-16, 1618-28) in the Dutch East Indies. Sailing on the Duyfken [dovekin] from Bantam, Java, in 1605, he sailed along the S New Guinea coast and crossed over to what is now the Carpentaria Bay coast of Queensland, becoming (1606) the first European explorer known for certain to have sighted and landed in Australia (though he believed it to be part of New Guinea). He was the colonial governor of Ft. Henricus, Solor (1612-16), and of Banda (1623-27) and rose to the rank of admiral.
Einthoven, Willem, 1860-1927, Dutch physiologist, b. Java, M.D. Univ. of Utrecht, 1885. He was professor at the Univ. of Leiden from 1886. To measure the electric currents developed by the heart, he invented a string galvanometer and with its aid produced the electrocardiogram (EKG), a graphic record of the action of the heart. For this he received the 1924 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
De Sitter, Willem: see Sitter, Willem de.
de Kooning, Willem, 1904-97, American painter, b. Netherlands; studied Rotterdam Academy of Fine Arts and Techniques. De Kooning immigrated to the United States, arriving as a stowaway in 1926 and settling in New York City, where he worked on the Federal Arts Project (1935). He began experiments with abstraction as early as 1928, but continued to produce realistic paintings throughout the 1930s. Influenced by Arshile Gorky, de Kooning forged a powerful abstract style and in the 1940s became a leader of abstract expressionism. In his monumental series of the early 1950s entitled Woman, he reintroduced a representational element. Woman I (1951-52; Mus. of Modern Art, New York City), with its startling ferocity, brought him considerable notice and some notoriety. He later reverted chiefly to nonfigurative work. During the 1960s he also produced more paintings of women as well as many works with landscape elements, and in the 1970s he created a dazzling group of painterly abstractions.

Slashed with color amd formed with eloquent brushstrokes, de Kooning's often huge canvases are improvisationally executed and charged with great energy; many are widely considered masterpieces of the abstract expressionist movement. His late work (1980-1990) has been the subject of some controversy. Although increasingly affected by Alzheimer's disease during this decade, he produced an impressive body of work, hundreds of large canvases in elegantly composed configurations, their elements pared down, their limited colors forming sinuously intertwining ribbons. In some sense, de Kooning's art had outlived his conscious mind as he continued to create beautifully simplified works of art. He finally stopped painting in mid-1990. He was married to the painter Elaine Fried de Kooning (1920-1989).

See biographies by H. F. Gaugh (1983), L. Hall (1993, repr. 2000), and M. Stevens and A. Swan (2004); studies by H. Rosenberg (1974), D. Waldman (1978 and 1988), D. Cateforis (1994), D. Sylvester et al. (1994), G. Garrels and R. Storr (1995), S. Yard (1997), K. Kertess et al. (1998), C. Morris (1999), and Edvard Liever (2000).

Kieft, Willem, 1597-1647, Dutch director-general of New Netherland. Arriving in New Amsterdam in 1638 to succeed Wouter Van Twiller, Kieft immediately assumed absolute control. His arbitrary rule and tactless handling of the Native Americans resulted in almost continuous Native American warfare during his administration. He was replaced by Peter Stuyvesant (1647) and was lost at sea on his way to Holland.
Kloos, Willem, 1859-1938, Dutch poet and critic. In 1885 he founded the progressive literary journal De Nieuwe Gids [the new guide]. His personal anger against prevailing modes of literary expression is vented in the sonnets in Verzen (1894), notable for the fresh imagery and metaphor they introduced to Dutch poetry. Unlike some of his literary associates, Kloos never developed social concerns and remained primarily a literary reformer.
Barentz or Barents, Willem, d. 1597, Dutch navigator. He made three voyages (1594, 1595, 1596-97) in search of the Northeast Passage to Asia. He reached Novaya Zemlya on the first two expeditions. On the third he accidentally discovered Spitsbergen, rounded the north point of Novaya Zemlya, and was caught in the ice. After the arctic winter the crew started for the mainland in two small boats. Barentz died on the way. The extent of his explorations and the accuracy of his charts made him one of the most important of all arctic explorers. The meteorological data that Barentz collected are still consulted today.
Bilderdijk, Willem, 1756-1831, Dutch poet. He tutored Louis Bonaparte in Dutch and later conducted a small private college at Leiden, where his pupils included Isaäc da Costa and Jacob van Lennep. One of the pioneers of Dutch Romantic poetry, much of his output was religious in its inspiration. His most ambitious effort is an unfinished epic, De Ondergang der eerste Wareld [the destruction of the first creation] (1820), an account of the struggle among the descendants of Cain.

(born April 24, 1904, Rotterdam, Neth.—died March 19, 1997, East Hampton, N.Y., U.S.) Dutch-born U.S. painter. He studied art in Rotterdam and entered the U.S. as a stowaway in 1926. Settling in Hoboken, N.J., he supported himself as a house painter before moving to New York City, where he came under the influence of Arshile Gorky. He supported himself by working for the WPA Federal Art Project. In the 1930s and '40s his work was both figurative and abstract; the two tendencies eventually fused in images that combined biomorphic and geometric shapes. In the 1940s he became one of the leading exponents of Abstract Expressionism and particularly of action painting. Among his best-known works is a series of deliberately vulgar images of women done with roughly applied pigment and raw colours (e.g., Woman I, 1950–52; Woman and Bicycle, 1953). In 1963 he moved to East Hampton; in his later years he produced clay sculpture that was cast into bronze.

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(born April 24, 1904, Rotterdam, Neth.—died March 19, 1997, East Hampton, N.Y., U.S.) Dutch-born U.S. painter. He studied art in Rotterdam and entered the U.S. as a stowaway in 1926. Settling in Hoboken, N.J., he supported himself as a house painter before moving to New York City, where he came under the influence of Arshile Gorky. He supported himself by working for the WPA Federal Art Project. In the 1930s and '40s his work was both figurative and abstract; the two tendencies eventually fused in images that combined biomorphic and geometric shapes. In the 1940s he became one of the leading exponents of Abstract Expressionism and particularly of action painting. Among his best-known works is a series of deliberately vulgar images of women done with roughly applied pigment and raw colours (e.g., Woman I, 1950–52; Woman and Bicycle, 1953). In 1963 he moved to East Hampton; in his later years he produced clay sculpture that was cast into bronze.

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(born Jan. 12, 1916, Paul Roux, S.Af.—died Oct. 31, 2006, Wilderness, near George) Prime minister (1978–84) and first state president (1984–89) of South Africa. Elected to parliament as a National Party candidate in 1948, Botha served in several subsequent posts before replacing John Vorster as prime minister in 1978. His government faced serious difficulties, including the coming to power of black governments in Mozambique, Angola, and Zimbabwe, an insurgency in South West Africa (Namibia), and domestic unrest among black students and labour unions. Botha responded by backing antigovernment troops in the bordering states and suppressing rebellion at home. A target of criticism from within and outside his party, he fell ill and resigned in 1989.

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(born March 18, 1936, Johannesburg, S.Af.) President of South Africa (1989–94). He brought the apartheid system to an end and negotiated a transition to majority rule. Replacing P.W. Botha as leader of the National Party and president, de Klerk quickly moved to release all important political prisoners, including Nelson Mandela, and to lift the ban on the African National Congress. He and Mandela jointly received the 1993 Nobel Peace Prize. Following the country's first universal suffrage elections in 1994, Mandela became president and de Klerk was appointed second deputy president. He retired from politics in 1997.

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(born Jan. 12, 1916, Paul Roux, S.Af.—died Oct. 31, 2006, Wilderness, near George) Prime minister (1978–84) and first state president (1984–89) of South Africa. Elected to parliament as a National Party candidate in 1948, Botha served in several subsequent posts before replacing John Vorster as prime minister in 1978. His government faced serious difficulties, including the coming to power of black governments in Mozambique, Angola, and Zimbabwe, an insurgency in South West Africa (Namibia), and domestic unrest among black students and labour unions. Botha responded by backing antigovernment troops in the bordering states and suppressing rebellion at home. A target of criticism from within and outside his party, he fell ill and resigned in 1989.

Learn more about Botha, P(ieter) W(illem) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Willem-Alexander, Prince of Orange (in Dutch: Prins van Oranje). (given names: Willem-Alexander Claus George Ferdinand; born April 27, 1967) is the eldest son of Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands and the heir apparent to the Dutch throne.

Early life and education

Willem-Alexander Claus George Ferdinand, The Prince of Orange, Prince of the Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau, Jonkheer van Amsberg is the eldest son of Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands and her late husband, Prince Claus of the Netherlands, Jonkheer van Amsberg. The Prince was born in Utrecht. His godparents are Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands (his grandfather), Prince Ferdinand von Bismarck, former Dutch Prime Minister Dr. Jelle Zijlstra, Gosta van Amsberg, Queen Margrethe II of Denmark (at the time Crown Princess of Denmark), and Renee Smith. He was educated at a Protestant high school in The Hague, and also attended the United World College of the Atlantic in Wales prior to university. He has been groomed in state affairs to assume the Dutch throne one day. He earned an academic degree in history from Leiden University and is interested in international water management issues.

Work and royal duties

Prince Willem-Alexander is an honorary member of the World Commission on Water for the 21st Century and patron of the Global Water Partnership, a body established by the World Bank, the UN, and the Swedish Ministry of Development. He was appointed as the Chairperson of the United Nations Secretary General’s Advisory Board on Water and Sanitation on December 12th, 2006.

The prince is a member of the Raad van State, the highest council to the Dutch government that is chaired by his mother, Queen Beatrix. As part of his Royal duties, he holds commissions in the Dutch Army (as brigadier), Navy (as commandeur) and Air Force (as commodore) and was a patron of the Dutch Olympic Games Committee until 1998 when he was made a member of the International Olympic Committee (IOC). To celebrate the 100 year anniversary of 1928 Summer Olympics held in Amsterdam, he has expressed support to bid for the 2028 Summer Olympics.

On behalf of the Crown, the Prince carries out various other representative duties.

Leisure activities

He is an aircraft pilot and sportsman. In 1989, the Prince flew as a volunteer for the "African Medical Research and Education Foundation" (AMREF) in Kenya, and in 1991 he spent a month flying for the Kenya Wildlife Service. To make sure he flies enough miles a year, so that he can hold his license to fly, he also regularly flies the Dutch Royal Airplane when he and his family travel abroad.

Using the name "van Buren", one of the less well-known surnames of the House of Orange-Nassau, he has participated in the New York City Marathon, where his aunt, Princess Christina, and several cousins live. In the Netherlands, he was a participant in the Frisian Eleven Cities ice skating marathon.

The Prince was also seen cheering on the Netherlands' national football team during their hosting year, at Euro 2000. He memorably gave a nervous laugh of disbelief as the Netherlands missed their second penalty of normal time against the Italians in the semi-final.

Marriage

In a 1999 television interview, the Prince declared that he wouldn't marry in the next 10 years. At the time, he was 32 years old, and his father didn't marry until he was nearly 40.

Nonetheless, on February 2 2002, he married Máxima Zorreguieta Cerruti (born May 17 1971), an Argentine woman of Spanish and Italian ancestry who, prior to their marriage, worked as an investment banker in New York City.

Like all Dutch monarchs, Prince Willem-Alexander is a nominal member of the Protestant Dutch Reformed Church but, unlike the highly controversial 1964 marriage to a Roman Catholic by his aunt, Princess Irene, religion was not a major issue in the Prince's marriage.

The prince is a direct descendant of Anne, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange, eldest daughter of British King George II. However, under the British Act of Settlement, Prince Willem-Alexander forfeited his (distant) succession rights to the throne of each of the sixteen Commonwealth Realms, because he married a Roman Catholic.

The issue of Máxima's father, Jorge Horacio Zorreguieta Stefanini was rather sensitive. He was a civilian member of the Videla regime, a dictatorship that ruled Argentina from 1976 to 1983. As a result of the controversy, Mr. Zorreguieta agreed not to attend the royal wedding when representatives of Prime Minister Wim Kok requested him to stay away.

Issue

Name Birth Birthplace
Princess Catharina-Amalia 7 December 2003 The Hague
Princess Alexia 26 June 2005 The Hague
Princess Ariane 10 April 2007 The Hague

Heir apparent: titles and style

  • His Royal Highness Prince Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau, Jonkheer van Amsberg (1967-1980)
  • His Royal Highness The Prince of Orange (since 1980)

His official title is "His Royal Highness Willem-Alexander , Prince of Orange, Prince of the Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau, Jonkheer van Amsberg".

When his mother Queen Beatrix became the queen regnant of the Netherlands, prince Willem-Alexander obtained the title "Prince of Orange" as new heir to the Dutch throne.

He is the first male heir-apparent to the Dutch throne since Prince Alexander, son of King William III, who died in 1884. Prince Willem-Alexander has indicated that upon succeeding his mother, he would assume the throne under the title of King William IV of the Netherlands. If he ascends the throne, he will be the Netherlands' first male monarch since 1890.

Prince Willem-Alexander is also heir-apparent to the following titles:

  • Marquis of Veere
  • Marquis of Vlissingen
  • Count of Katzenelnbogen, Vianden, Diez, Spiegelberg, Buren, Leerdam and Culemborg
  • Viscount of Antwerp
  • Baron of Breda, Diest, Beilstein, the city of Grave, the land of Cuijk, IJsselstein, Cranendonck, Eindhoven, Liesveld, Herstel, Waasten, Arlay and Nozeroy
  • Vrijheer of Ameland
  • Lord of Borculo, Bredevoort, Lichtenvoorde, Loo, Geertruidenberg, Klundert, Zevenbergen, Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe, Naaldwijk, Polanen, Sint Maartensdijk, Soest, Baarn, Ter Eem, Willemstad, Steenbergen, Montfoort, St. Vith, Büttgenbach, Niervaart, Daasburg, Turnhout and Besançon

Ancestry

References

External links

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