[wil-uh-mee-nuh, wil-hel-; Du. vil-hel-mee-nah]
Wilhelmina, 1880-1962, queen of the Netherlands (1890-1948), daughter and successor of William III. Her mother, Emma of Waldeck-Pyrmont, was regent until 1898. Wilhelmina married (1901) Prince Henry of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (d. 1934), who played no active part in the government. The Salic law then having application in Luxembourg, the personal union of that grand duchy with the Netherlands was abrogated at her accession. The queen probably had a large share in the maintenance of Dutch neutrality in World War I and in the granting of asylum to William II of Germany after the war. When the Netherlands was invaded (May, 1940) by the Germans in World War II, Wilhelmina fled to England with her government; she made her formal return to the Netherlands in May, 1945. In 1948, after celebrating the 50th anniversary of her reign amid rejoicings that reflected her great popularity, Wilhelmina abdicated in favor of her daughter, Queen Juliana.

See her autobiography (tr. 1960).

Wilhelmina, Mount, Indonesia: see Trikora Peak.

(born Aug. 31, 1880, The Hague, Neth.—died Nov. 28, 1962, Het Loo, near Apeldoorn) Queen of The Netherlands (1890–1948). Daughter of King William III, she became queen on his death, under her mother's regency until 1898, and soon gained wide popular approval. She helped maintain her country's neutrality in World War I. After Germany invaded The Netherlands in 1940, she left with her family for London. Throughout World War II she made radio broadcasts to maintain the morale of the Dutch people, becoming a symbol of Dutch resistance to the German occupation. In 1948 she abdicated in favour of her daughter, Juliana.

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(born April 30, 1909, The Hague, Netherlands—died March 20, 2004, Baarn) Queen of The Netherlands (1948–80). During World War II she took refuge in Ottawa while her husband, Prince Bernhard, remained with Queen Wilhelmina's government, which had relocated to London. Returning to The Netherlands in 1945, Juliana acted as regent during her mother's illness and became queen when Wilhelmina abdicated. In 1980 she abdicated in favour of her daughter Beatrix.

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Beatrix of The Netherlands.

(born Jan. 31, 1938, Soestdijk, Neth.) Queen of The Netherlands. Beatrix went into exile with her family when the Germans invaded The Netherlands in World War II, and she spent the war years in Britain and Canada. In 1965 her betrothal to a German diplomat sparked controversy because of his past membership in the Hitler Youth and the German army. They were married in 1966, and the hostility waned with the births of the first male heirs in the house of Orange since 1890. Beatrix became queen in 1980 after the abdication of her mother, Juliana.

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