Definitions

Zhengzhou

Zhengzhou

[jœng-joh]
Zhengzhou or Chengchow, city (1994 est. pop. 1,323,700), capital of Henan prov., E central China. An important railroad center, the city is at the junction of the Longhai (east-west) and the Beijing-Guangzhou (north-south) railroads. The textile center of Henan prov., and a flourishing industrial city, Zhengzhou has grown about sevenfold since 1949. In addition to textiles, manufactures include tractors, locomotives, cigarettes, fertilizer, processed meats, agricultural machinery, and electrical equipment. An open-pit coal mine is nearby. Near the city are important archaeological sites, which indicate that Zhengzhou was the Shang capital of Ao. An agricultural institute and a medical college are in the city. Zhengzhou was formerly called Zhengxian; the name sometimes appears as Cheng-chou.
or Cheng-chou formerly (1913–49) Zhengxian or Cheng-hsien

City (pop., 2003 est.: 1,770,800), capital of Henan province, east-central China. Located south of the Huang He (Yellow River), it is an important rail centre. There were Neolithic settlements in the area, and the Shang Bronze Age culture (fl. circa 1500 BC) was centred there on a walled city. Zhou-dynasty tombs have also been discovered. The city was first called Zhengzhou in AD 605, and it has been known by that name virtually ever since. It achieved its greatest importance in the 6th–12th century, when it was the terminus of a canal that joined the Huang to the north. In the early 20th century it became a rail junction and a regional agricultural centre. Since 1949 its industrial base has greatly expanded, and its population has grown considerably.

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Zhengzhou formerly called Zhengxian is a prefecture-level city, and the capital of Henan province, People's Republic of China.

Geography

Located just north of the province's center and south of the Yellow River, Zhengzhou borders Luoyang to the west, Jiaozuo to the northwest, Xinxiang to the northeast, Kaifeng to the east, Xuchang to the southeast, and Pingdingshan to the southwest.

Zhengzhou is situated to the south of the Yellow River where its valley broadens into the great plain and at the eastern extremity of the Xionger Mountains. Zhengzhou is at the crossing point of the north–south route skirting the Taihang Mountains and the mountains of western Henan and the east–west route along the southern bank of the Yellow River.

Administration

The prefecture-level city of Zhengzhou administers 12 county-level divisions, including 6 districts, 5 county-level cities and 1 county.

History

The Shang Dynasty established Aodu (隞都) or Bodu (亳都) in Zhengzhou (see also: History of China). The pre-historical city had been long lost even before the time of the First Emperor of China. Since 1950 archaeological finds have shown that there were Neolithic settlements in the area and that the Shang Bronze Age culture, which flourished there from about 1500 BC, was centered on a walled city. Outside this city, in addition to remains of large public buildings, a complex of small settlements has been discovered. The site is generally identified with the Shang capital of Ao. The Shang, who continually moved their capital, left Ao, perhaps in the 13th century BC. The site, nevertheless, remained occupied; Zhou (post-1050 BC) tombs have also been discovered. Traditionally it is held that in the Western Zhou period (1111–771 BC) it became the fief of a family named Guan. From this derives the name borne by the county (xian) since the late 6th century BC — Guancheng (City of the Guan). The city first became the seat of a prefectural administration in AD 587, when it was named Guanzhou. In 605 it was first called Zhengzhou — a name by which it has been known virtually ever since.

The name of Zhengzhou came from Sui Dynasty (AD 581), albeit it was located in Chenggao, another town. The government moved to the contemporary city during Tang Dynasty. It achieved its greatest importance under the Sui (AD 581–618), Tang (618–907), and early Song (960–1127) dynasties, when it was the terminus of the New Bian Canal, which joined the Yellow River to the northwest. There, at a place called Heyin, a vast granary complex was established to supply the capitals at Luoyang and Chang'an to the west and the frontier armies to the north. In the Song period, however, the transfer of the capital eastward to Kaifeng robbed Zhengzhou of much of its importance.

In 1903 the BeijingHankou railway arrived at Zhengzhou, and in 1909 the first stage of the Longhai Railway gave it an east–west link to Kaifeng and Luoyang; it later was extended eastward to the coast at Lianyungang, Jiangsu Province, and westward to Xi'an (Chang'an), Shaanxi Province, as well as to western Shaanxi. Zhengzhou thus became a major rail junction and a regional center for cotton, grain, peanuts (groundnuts), and other agricultural produce. Early in 1923 a workers' strike began in Zhengzhou and spread along the rail line before it was suppressed; a 14-story double tower in the center of the city commemorates the strike. In 1938, during the war with Japan, the retreating Chinese Nationalist Army blew up the dikes retaining the Yellow River about 32 km northeast of the town, flooding a vast area. At about the same time, in their drive to relocate industry in the interior far from the invading Japanese, the Chinese transferred all the local plants to the west.

When the Communist government came to power in 1949, Zhengzhou was a commercial and administrative center, but it had virtually no industry. Because it was the center of a densely populated cotton-growing district, it was developed into an industrial city, with industry concentrated on the west side so that the prevailing northeast winds would blow fumes away from the city. There are cotton-textile plants, spinning mills, textile-machinery works, flour mills, tobacco and cigarette factories, and various food-processing plants; coal is mined nearby.

Zhengzhou also has a locomotive and rolling-stock repair plant, a tractor-assembly plant, and a thermal generating station. The city's industrial growth has resulted in a large increase in population, largely of industrial workers from the north. Trees have been planted throughout the city's more than 23 km² area, holding down the sand that formerly blew in thick gusts through the city. A water diversion project and pumping station, built in 1972, has provided irrigation for the surrounding countryside. The city has an agricultural university.

Politics

List of Mayors (incomplete):

  1. Song Zhihe (宋致和): October 1948-August 1955
  2. Hu Shujian (胡树俭): June 1983-February 1991
  3. Zhang Shiying (张世英): February 1991-June 1993
  4. Song Tianbao (朱天宝): June 1993-November 1996
  5. Chen Yichu (陈义初): November 1996-February 2003
  6. Wang Wenchao (王文超): February 2003-February 2006
  7. Zhao Jiancai (赵建才): February 2006- (incumbent)

List of the CPC Party Chiefs of Zhengzhou:

  1. Gu Jingsheng (谷景生): October 1948-December 1948
  2. Wu Defeng (吴德蜂): December 1948-June 1949
  3. Zhao Wucheng (赵武成): June 1949 - April 1953
  4. Song Zhihe (宋致和): April 1953-August 1956
  5. Wang Lizhi (王黎之): August 1956-January 1968
  6. Wang Hui (王辉): March 1971-January 1974
  7. Zhang Junqing (张俊卿): January 1974-December 1977
  8. Yu Yichuan (于一川): December 1977-December 1979
  9. Li Baoguang (李保光): December 1979-May 1983
  10. Jiang Jinfei (蒋靳非): May 1983-September 1984
  11. Yao Minxue (姚敏学): September 1984-August 1987
  12. Cao Lei (曹磊): August 1987-July 1990
  13. Song Guochen (宋国臣): July 1990-May 1992
  14. Zhang Deguang (张德广): May 1992-December 1995
  15. Wang Youjie (王有杰): December 1995-June 2001
  16. Li Ke (李克): June 2001-

Economy

GDP per capita was ¥23305 in 2005.

Agriculture

By the end of 2006, Zhengzhou has a total population of over 7 million, of which 2.88 million live in rural area. Its main products include apples, paulownia, tobacco, maize, cotton, and wheat. In addition, Zhengzhou also produces Yellow River carp, Zhengzhou watermelons, Xinzheng jujube, [Xingyang] dried persimmons, Guangwu Pomegranate and Zhongmu garlic, all of which are specialties that are rarely found outside the region.

Industry

Zhengzhou has been one of the major industrial cities in The People's Republic of China since 1949. The city's staple industry is textiles. Others manufactured items include tractors, locomotives, cigarettes, fertilizer, processed meats, agricultural machinery, and electrical equipment

Culture

Tourism

Zhengzhou is a flat industrial city set amid the farmland of the central China plain. While it is not a tourist city, it is a good example of a remarkably fast-changing city in China without some of the tourism clutter. Note: Finding people to speak English can be a challenge sometimes so come prepared with some Chinese Language or the places you wish to go to written down for taxi drivers.

The best known tourist attraction is Shaolin Temple (少林寺), which is about more than 50 miles southwest of Zhengzhou. Shaolin Temple is famous not only as one of China's important Buddhist shrines, but also as the ancient center of Chinese kung-fu. Built in 495, the temple was originally designed to house Batuo, a celebrated Indian monk, who, after many years of spreading Buddhism, was later known as Fo Tuo, or Grand Monk. In 537, another famous Indian monk, Boddhidharma, settled in the temple, and as legend has it, created a sort of primitive bare-hand combat routine called “xingyi boxing” after he had sat meditating in a cave for nine years. That started the kung-fu tradition at the temple

Zhengzhou's most notable cultural institution is the Henan Museum (河南省博物院), one of China's most important museums. The provincial museum in particular requires at least a half day visit to do justice to the many impressive exhibits, which range from prehistoric times, including dinosaur bones, up through the Qing Dynasty. The admission price was 20 yuan, but has now been made free of charge.

Zhengzhou has a zoo: 动物园 (Dong Wu Yuan) located on Hua Yuan Lu (花园路). The Erqi Memorial Tower is located in the city center.

There are the remains of the Shang Dynasty Ruins in Zhengzhou's west side located around Shangcheng lu (商城路). Mostly this consists of a 5,000 year old dirt wall which formed part of the old city's defenses. While it is a good walk, do not expect to find many other relics of this time; additionally, the city wall is cut in three places by new roads that have been built recently.

There is a large water, light, and music show on display in Zheng Dong Xin Qu (New Eastern District) during the weekend at 8.30 pm in the summer and 8.00 pm during the winter months. The show is about 25 minutes long and is free of charge. Arrive before 8.00 for a seat; the show times do change from 8.00 and 8.30 without warning.

Transport

Train

Zhengzhou is the major railway junction between the Longhai railway (east-west) and the Jingguang railway (north-south). Nearly all trains pass through Zhengzhou on route to Beijing, Shanghai and Xian.

Zhengzhou is easy to reach from Beijing (between 5-8 hours)and Shanghai (8-14 hours) by train. Further traveling to Xi'an (8 hours, no fast train) is also recommended by train. A tourist-friendly train leaves from Zhengzhou to Xi'An in the morning daily.

Taxi

The base taxi fare starts at 6 yuan. Every additional kilometer (past the initial 2 kilometers included in the base fare) costs 1.5 yuan with rates starting at 8 yuan after 10pm. There are now a few newer taxis operating that have higher starting rates of up to 10 yuan (usually based from the airport).

Bus

The city has a well-developed public transportation system and you can get most places by bus for 1yuan (or 2yuan for some of the newer air-conditioned buses). Bus passes can be purchased to eliminate the hassle of always needing to carry exact change.

Air

Zhengzhou Xinzheng International Airport is 37 km southeast of the city centre. An airport shuttle bus runs between the airport and the Civil Aviation Hotel 民航大酒店 (Mín Háng dà jiǔ diàn) on 金水路 (Jīnshuĭ Lù) in the heart of Zhengzhou. It costs 15 yuan per person to ride the shuttle in either direction. A taxi from the airport will cost about 140 yuan, while a taxi to the airport will cost about 90 yuan. There will also be an extra 10 yuan toll fee for the taxi using the airport expressway.

Accommodation

There are several styles of accommodation in Zhengzhou, from 5 star luxury style hotels to hostels. A few of the hotels are: Holiday Inn Express, Sofitel, Golden Palace Hotel, Pearl Hotel, and the Hotel Home. The majority of the hotels are near the central business district or the rail station.

Colleges and universities

Public

Military

Private

Notable people

City Gallery

Sister cities

International

Domestic

See also

Notes

External links

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