|Family name:||Zhu (朱)|
|Given name:||Qizhen (祁鎮)|
|Emperor of China (1st time)|
|Dates of reign:||February 7, 1435–September 1, 1449¹|
|Era name:||Zhengtong (正統)|
|Era dates||January 18, 1436–January 13, 1450|
|Emperor of China (2nd time)|
|Dates of reign:||February 11, 1457–February 23, 1464|
|Era name:||Tianshun (天順)|
|Era dates||February 15, 1457–January 26, 1465|
|Temple name:||Yingzong (英宗)|
|Emperor Rui (睿皇帝)|
|Emperor Fatian Lidao Renming|
Chengjing Zhaowen Xianwu
Zhide Guangxiao Rui
|General note: Dates given here are in the Julian calendar.|
They are not in the proleptic Gregorian calendar.
|1. Captured by the Mongols, he was succeeded by his brother|
Jingtai who conferred on him the title Taishang Huang
(太上皇), a title reserved for the retired emperors and which
he held until 1457.
Zhu Qizhen (Cheng-t'ung) (November 29, 1427 – February 23, 1464) was an emperor of the Ming Dynasty. He ruled as the Zhengtong Emperor from 1435 to 1449, and as the Tianshun Emperor from 1457 to 1464.
On August 6, 1461, the Tianshun Emperor issued an edict warning his subjects to be loyal to the throne and not to violate the laws. This was a veiled threat aimed at the general Cao Qin (d. 1461), who had become embroiled in a controversy when he had one of his retainers kill a man whom Ming authorities were attempting to interrogate (to find out about Cao's illegal foreign business transactions). On August 7, 1461, General Cao Qin and his cohorts of Mongol descent attempted a coup against the Tianshun Emperor. However, during the first hours of the morning of August 7, prominent Ming Mongol generals, Wu Jin and Wu Cong, were alerted of the coup and immediately relayed a warning to the emperor. Although alarmed, the emperor and his court made preparations for a conflict and barred the gates of the palace. During the ensuing onslaught in the capital later that morning, the Minister of Works and the Commander of the Imperial Guard were killed, while the rebels set the gates of the Forbidden City on fire. The eastern and western gates of the imperial city were only saved when pouring rains came and extinguished the fires. The fight lasted for nearly the entire day within the city; during which three of Cao Qin's brothers were killed, and Qin himself received wounds to both arms. With the failure of the coup, in order to escape being executed, Qin fled to his residence and committed suicide by jumping down a well within the walled compound of his home.
The Tianshun Emperor died at the age of 37 in 1464 and was buried in the Yuling (裕陵) tomb of the Ming Dynasty Tombs.