Yusuf ibn 'Abd al-Rahman al-Fihri
was the Umayyad
governor of Narbonne
and later governor of al-Andalus
from 747 to 756, ruling independently following the collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate
in 750. Between 716 and 756, al-Andalus was ruled by governors sent from Damascus
or appointed on the recommendation of emirs of Ifriqiya
to which it administratively belonged.
After becoming ruler, al-Fihri conducted a census, as part of which Bishop Hostegesis prepared a list of tax and jizya payers. The bishop then made annual visits to makes sure the taxes were collected properly.
He led a campaign against the Basques of Pamplona in 755 but was defeated and is said to have horrified tribal sensibilities by raping two of Abd ar-Rahman's slaves, thus contributing to the factional conflicts in al-Andalus at that time.
Yusuf al-Fihri was defeated at the Battle of Musarah just outside Córdoba in March 756 by Abd ar-Rahman I, who, having fled Syria in 755 to escape from the Abbasids, became the first Emir of Córdoba.