Definitions

York_County,_Virginia

York County, Virginia

York County is a county located on the north side of the Virginia Peninsula in the Hampton Roads region of the Commonwealth of Virginia, a state of the United States. Situated on the York River and many tributaries, the county seat is the unincorporated town of Yorktown . The county shares land borders with the independent cities of Williamsburg, Newport News and Poquoson, as well as James City County, and shares it border along the York River with Gloucester County.

Formed in 1634 as one of the eight original shires (counties) of the Virginia Colony, York County is one of the oldest counties in the U.S. Yorktown is one of the three points of the Historic Triangle of Colonial Virginia, and the location where victory was accomplished in 1781 at the conclusion of the American Revolutionary War to gain independence from Great Britain.

In modern times, the county is home to several important U.S. military installations. There are many miles of waterfront residential and recreational areas. York County adjoins the Busch Gardens Europe theme park and includes within its borders the affiliated Water Country USA water park, Presidents Park, the Yorktown Riverfront area, Yorktown Battlefield and Visitor Center and Yorktown Victory Center. Yorktown is linked by the National Park Service's bucolic Colonial Parkway with Colonial Williamsburg and the Historic Jamestowne and Jamestown Settlement attractions at Jamestown, Virginia, all helping make worldwide tourism to the Historic Triangle a major economic activity for the county.

As of 2006, the population was estimated at 61,879 and as of 2004, the median household income was $68,310 .

History

Native Americans

The area which is now York County was long inhabited by Native Americans. These were hunter-gatherer groups during the late Woodland Period (1000 BCE to 1000 CE) and earlier.

By the late 16th century, much of the coastal plain draining to the Chesapeake Bay of the current Commonwealth of Virginia was called Tenakomakah ("densely-inhabited Land"). There, a weroance (or chief) named Wahunsunacock (1547-1618) created a powerful empire of eastern-Algonquian language-speaking people known as the Powhatan Confederacy by conquering or affiliating by agreement with approximately 30 tribes. Wahunsunacock was originally from a village near the fall line of the James River known as "Powhatan" (located close to the Powhatan Hill neighborhood of the current City of Richmond). He was known as Chief Powhatan, and later established a second capital village in a centrally-located position in Tenakomakah which was known as Werowocomoco. It was located along the north bank of the York River in present-day Gloucester County (which was subdivided from York County in 1651).

The Chiskiack tribe of the Powhatan Confederacy lived in York County on the south side of the York River on the grounds of the present-day Naval Weapons Station Yorktown near Yorktown until the 1630s, when escalating conflicts with the expanding English colony based at Jamestown caused them to move. The former site of the village of Chiskiack (also sometimes spelled "Kiskiack"), as well as the Cheesecake Road and Cheesecake Cemetery (names also thought to have derived from the Powhatan), remain on the military base.

Long-lost after Chief Powhatan moved his capital from there in 1609, the site believed to have been Werowocomoco near Purtan Bay has been under continuing archaeological study projects since the early 21st century. The discoveries and ongoing research led by the College of William and Mary hold great promise in expanding understanding of the lives of the Native Americans in the area during that era of York County's history.

Ajacan Mission

In 1570, the Ajacan Mission was a failed attempt to establish a mission by Spanish Jesuit priests, guided by a Native American convert to Christanity who had been christened Don Luis, and educated in Spain. However, he returned to his native life, and a few months later, led an attack in which the Europeans were slain.

Virginia Colony

About 30 years later, English colonists arrived and established Jamestown in 1607 on the opposite side of the Virginia Peninsula in the Colony and Dominion of Virginia. In 1619, the area which is now York County was included in two of the four incorporations (or "citties") of the proprietary Virginia Company of London which were known as Elizabeth Cittie and James Cittie.

In 1634, what is now York County was formed as Charles River Shire for King Charles I, one of the eight original shires of Virginia. Charles River Shire took its name from the younger son of King James I. In the 21st century, it was one of the five original shires considered extant in esstentially its same political form, making it one of the oldest counties in the United States.

During the English Civil War, Charles River County and the Charles River (also named for the king) were changed to York County and York River, respectively. The river, county, and town of Yorktown are believed to have been named for York, a city in Northern England.

Yorktown

The first courthouse and jail were located near what is now Yorktown although the community, founded as a port for shipping tobacco to Europe, as variously called Port of York, Borough of York, York, Town of York, until Yorktown was established in 1691, when the House of Burgesses required each county to designate a port of entry and build warehousing. Although never formally incorporated as a town, Yorktown is the county seat of York County. The only town ever incorporated within the county's boundaries was Poquoson, which was incorporated in 1952 and became an independent city in 1975.

It is most famous as the site of the surrender of General Cornwallis to General George Washington in 1781, ending the American Revolutionary War. Yorktown also figured prominently in the American Civil War during the Peninsula Campaign in 1862.

Other communities, boundary changes

The small unincorporated town of Lackey and a nearnby area known as "the Reservation" were taken over by the U.S. Navy during World War I in an area now part of the Naval Weapons Station Yorktown. Many of the displaced African American landowners eventually relocated to Grove, located nearby along the York County-James City County border.

During World War II, the sites of three other small York County towns were absorbed into U.S. government reservations. Penniman was the site of a World War I munitions facility operated by the DuPont company, and was made a part of Cheatham Annex) in 1943. To the west of Penniman, which is reported to have had a peak population of 15,000, on land which is now part of Camp Peary, the smaller towns of Magruder, and Bigler's Mill were located. Much of Magruder's population and at least one church were relocated to Grove, adding to that small community's population once again.

In 1949, the county grew by , as land in that amount was ceded to York County by neighboring Warwick County. At the time, the move was part of a successful attempt by Warwick County to block an annexation suit brought by the City of Newport News, with whom Warwick was eventually consolidated by mutual agreement in 1958. (The reduction in size allowed Warwick County to claim an exemption from the proposed annexation at the time). In 1975, the county lost of land as the incorporated town of Poquoson, which had been within York County, became an independent city, although ties between the county and the new city remained close. Over 30 years later, they continued to share courts, sheriff's office, a jail, and some constitutional services. York County also adjoins another small independent city, Williamsburg, which was long located within James City County.

York County in the late 20th and early 21st centuries

From the 1980s to modern times, York County experienced a rapid transition from a rural county to an affluent bedroom community for the neighboring core cities of Hampton and Newport News, two of the Seven Cities of Hampton Roads, the larger cities in the area which is encircled by the Hampton Roads Beltway.

In modern times, York County and Yorktown in particular are part of an important historical area of attractions known as the Historic Triangle of Colonial Virginia, which includes Yorktown, Jamestown and Williamsburg. Yorktown is the northern terminus of the scenic Colonial Parkway operated by the U.S. National Park Service which links the three. In 2005, the county completed Yorktown Riverfront, a successful pseudo-colonial waterfront development at Yorktown to revitalize the previously deteriorating beach and town district and complement the 2007 celebration of Jamestown.

Geography

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 216 square miles (558 km²), of which, 106 square miles (274 km²) of it is land and 110 square miles (285 km²) of it (50.98%) is water. It is near the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay.

Also, in terms of population clusters, the County is divided by the vast expanse of federal land in the mid-section of the county. The southern portion of the County is fairly dense with suburban developments and contains the majority of the county's population and growth. The northern portion is more connected with the Williamsburg community than Yorktown and, although less populous than the south, is also fairly dense. Having not seen a significant amount of growth until recently, the northern portion is now seeing the development of new communities and shopping centers.

Adjacent counties and cities

National protected area

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 56,297 people, 20,000 households, and 15,880 families residing in the county. The population density was 533 people per square mile (206/km²). There were 20,701 housing units at an average density of 196 per square mile (76/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 80.00% White, 13.38% Black or African American, 0.35% Native American, 3.25% Asian, 0.12% Pacific Islander, 0.90% from other races, and 2.00% from two or more races. 2.68% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 20,000 households out of which 42.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 67.30% were married couples living together, 9.40% had a female householder with no husband present, and 20.60% were non-families. 16.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.40% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.78 and the average family size was 3.15.

In the county, the population was spread out with 29.10% under the age of 18, 6.60% from 18 to 24, 30.70% from 25 to 44, 24.40% from 45 to 64, and 9.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 96.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.50 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $57,956, and the median income for a family was $64,892. Males had a median income of $42,948 versus $28,713 for females. The per capita income for the county was $24,560. About 2.70% of families and 3.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.90% of those under age 18 and 3.80% of those age 65 or over.

Government

The County is traditionally organized per Virginia Law. It is governed by a Board of Supervisors, who are elected for four-year terms by voters from each of the county's five districts. The Board appoints a County Administrator to act as the administrative head of the county.

Unincorporated communities

Education

The county is served by the York County School Division.

Military bases

York County is home to several large and important military facilities of the United States. Located along the York River, small portions of each base extend into adjacent James City County as well.

The Naval Weapons Station Yorktown was originally established during World War I by order of President Woodrow Wilson, and now includes the formerly separate Cheatham Annex Supply Complex. Camp Peary was established during World War II as a Seabee Training Base. As the war progressed, it became valuable to the Allied Forces to house sensitive prisoners-of-war from captured German naval vessels; it was important for Nazi authorities to be unaware of their capture, since that also meant secret code books thought lost-at sea may also have been compromised. Many of these POWs made Virginia and the United States their new homeland after the War. Separating these two large military reservations is [[Queen's Creek, which originates in the western reaches of the county and drains to the York River.

York County contains some of the lost towns of Virginia including Yorke, and a large number when the military reservations were created in the first half of the 20th century. These include the original Lackey (known locally as "the Reservation"), Halstead's Point, Penniman, Bigler's Mill, and Magruder. Many relocated residents and their descendents, many of whom were farmers and watermen, now live in such places as Yorktown, Gloucester, Lee Hall, Grove, and Lightfoot.

Trivia

  • The lost 17th century town and port of Yorke was also located along the York River, not far from present-day Yorktown.
  • York County gained territory as a gift from neighboring Warwick County in 1949 as the latter needed to reduce its size slightly to successfully qualify for an exemption from an annexation suit by the City of Newport News. (Warwick eventually became a city itself in 1952, and then merged by mutual agreement with Newport News in 1958; however, York County kept the extra land.)
  • York County lost substantial territory when the Town of Poquoson became an independent city in 1975. This was widely seen as a defensive move against potential annexation by the city of Hampton with whom the town shared a border. In modern times, the ties between York County and the City of Poquoson remain close, including sharing a court system.
  • Porto Bello, the hunting lodge of Lord Dunmore, last royal governor of Virginia, still stands on the grounds of Camp Peary. It is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
  • York county's sister city is Zweibrucken, Germany.

Sources

Publications

  • McCartney, Martha W. (1977) James City County: Keystone of the Commonwealth; James City County, Virginia; Donning and Company; ISBN 0-89865-999-X

Websites

External links

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