William Adamson (2 April 1863 – 23 February 1936) was born in Dunfermline, Scotland and worked as a miner in Fife where he became involved with the National Union of Mineworkers. Active with the new Labour Party he was first elected to Parliament for West Fife in the December 1910 general election and became leader of the party in 1917, a position he held until 1921. Adamson served as Secretary for Scotland and Secretary of State for Scotland in the Labour governments of Ramsay MacDonald, splitting with MacDonald when he formed the National Government. Adamson lost his seat in the 1931 election which he contested for Labour against MacDonald's coalition. He stood again in the 1935 election but again failed to take the seat, losing on this occasion to William Gallacher of the Communist Party of Great Britain.