Walter

Walter

[vahl-ter for 1; wawl-ter for 2, 3]
Cronkite, Walter (Walter Leland Cronkite, Jr.), 1916-2009, American news broadcaster, b. St. Joseph, Mo. He left (1935) the Univ. of Texas to write for the Houston Press and later for other Scripps-Howard newspapers and to work in radio. After joining the United Press wire service in 1939 he served as a World War II correspondent (1942-45) and was a reporter at the Nuremberg trials and in Moscow (1946-48). He then left print journalism to again work in radio broadcasting, and in 1950 he turned to the new medium of television, joining the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS), where he covered (1952) the first televised presidential nominating conventions. A decade later he was named managing editor and anchor of the "The CBS Evening News with Walter Cronkite," which became American television's dominant evening news program. Calm and authoritative, he became a national institution, and in 1973 was voted America's most trusted public figure. He was especially known for his coverage of such events as the 1968 Democratic convention; the Vietnam War; the assassinations of President John F. Kennedy, Robert F. Kennedy, and Martin Luther King, Jr.; the Watergate affair, and the accomplishments of the American space program. In 1981 he stepped down as news anchor and became a special correspondent for CBS News; he subsequently made several documentaries and also did programs for other networks. His books include Challenges of Change (1971) and a memoir (1996).
Piston, Walter, 1894-1976, American composer and teacher, b. Rockland, Maine. Piston studied at Harvard and with Nadia Boulanger in Paris; he joined the faculty of Harvard in 1926. He became a Guggenheim Fellow in 1934. Piston was a neoclassicist composer, using traditional forms with sure technique and intellectual style. His works often incorporate masterful counterpoint and employ complex jazz rhythms. Piston's compositions include symphonies, suites for orchestra, a concertino for piano and orchestra, a violin concerto, a viola concerto, a toccata and a concerto for orchestra, a ballet, and string quartets and other chamber music. He is the author of Principles of Harmonic Analysis (1933), Harmony (1941, rev. ed. 1962), Counterpoint (1947), and Orchestration (1955).
Map or Mapes, Walter, c.1140-c.1210, English author, b. Wales. A favorite of Henry II, he traveled with the king and became archdeacon of Oxford. The one work indubitably his, De nugis curialium [courtiers' trifles], is a Latin prose collection of legends, tales, gossip, and anecdotes. Shrewd, witty, and satirical, the work shows Map as a wit and a man of the world, familiar with court life and public affairs. That he was the author of one or more extant Arthurian romances and of some surviving Goliardic songs is no longer accepted by scholars.
Mapes, Walter: see Map, Walter.
Hilton, Walter, d. 1396, English religious writer, an Austin canon of Thurgarton, Nottinghamshire. His spiritual treatise The Scale of Perfection (ed. by Evelyn Underhill, 1923) is a general manual for holy living. Although it was addressed to a Carthusian recluse, it became popular among English laymen before the Reformation. Hilton also composed a shorter Treatise Written to a Devout Man. His mysticism, typically English, resembles that of Richard Rolle of Hampole.

See studies by J. E. Milosh (1966) and P. Hodgson (rev. ed. 1967).

Walter, Bruno, 1876-1962, German-American conductor, b. Berlin as Bruno Walter Schlesinger. Walter studied at the Stern Conservatory in Berlin. After he had conducted in several German cities, Gustav Mahler appointed him (1901) assistant conductor of the Vienna State Opera, where he remained until 1912. Walter was musical director of the Munich Opera (1912-22) and of the Municipal Opera, Berlin (1925-29), and appeared at Covent Garden and the Salzburg Festival. He made his American debut in 1923. While conductor of the Gewandhaus Concerts in Leipzig (1929-33), he was forced by the Nazis to leave Germany. He returned to the Vienna Opera in 1935 but left in 1938, when the Nazis took over Austria. Walter became a permanent resident of the United States in 1939. He conducted the Metropolitan Opera, the NBC Symphony, the New York Philharmonic, and other American ensembles, being permanent conductor of the New York Philharmonic from 1947 to 1949. His performances had technical accuracy, controlled balance and inner details, expressive phrasing, rhetorical emphasis, and contrasting power and lyricism. Walter was renowned as an interpreter of the German and Austrian classics and was a friend and champion of Mahler. He wrote Gustav Mahler (tr. 1941), an autobiography, Theme and Variations (1946), and Of Music and Music-Making (1961).
Walter, Hubert, d. 1205, English archbishop and statesman. He was clerk to his uncle, Ranulf de Glanvill, and in 1186 he was made dean of York. In 1189 he was appointed bishop of Salisbury, and he accompanied Richard I on crusade in 1190. He returned to England in 1193 to be made archbishop of Canterbury and justiciar of the realm at the instigation of the now captive Richard. He was responsible for raising Richard's ransom and forestalling a rebellion planned by John (later King John). After Richard again departed (1194), Hubert was virtual ruler of England. Despite his manifest avarice, he was responsible for tax reforms and important administrative reforms in town and county government. In 1196, Walter caused the Church of St. Mary-le-Bow to be set afire in order to drive out the leader of the revolting London artisans, William FitzOsbert, who had taken sanctuary there. This and other unclerical actions led the pope to demand Walter's resignation from secular office in 1198. However, upon the accession (1199) of John he became chancellor and continued to wield enormous influence. He died shortly after frustrating the king's plan for another French campaign.

See biography by C. R. Young (1968).

Walter, Lucy, 1630?-1658, mistress (1648-50) of Charles II of England during his exile in Holland and France. She was the mother by him of James Scott, duke of Monmouth, whom the Whigs supported as heir to the throne in their attempt to exclude James, duke of York (later James II), from the succession. It was rumored at that time that Charles had actually married Lucy and that proof of the marriage was contained in a mysterious black box. Charles always denied the report. Lucy herself was a courtesan before and after her connection with Charles. She was arrested (1656) in London as a spy but was released and sent abroad. She died in Paris.
Walter, Thomas Ustick, 1804-87, American architect, b. Philadelphia. In 1819 he entered the office of William Strickland in Philadelphia as a student. In 1830 he began practice, the county prison (1831) at Moyamensing, Philadelphia co., being his first important work. The main building of Girard College in Philadelphia, which he designed in 1833 and completed in 1847, was one of the most ambitious works of the classic revival. In 1851, Walter was appointed to design extensions for the Capitol at Washington, D.C., which had remained unchanged since the completion of Bulfinch's plans in 1830. Holding the post of government architect until 1865, Walter added the wings for the Senate and House of Representatives, as well as the soaring central dome of cast iron, replacing Bulfinch's low dome, and rebuilt the west front. At Washington, D.C., Walter also designed the interior of the Library of Congress and built extensions for the Post Office, the Patent Office, and the Treasury. For the Venezuelan government he designed a breakwater at La Guaira. One of the original organizers of the American Institute of Architects in 1857, he held its presidency from 1867 until his death.
Friedlaender, Walter, 1873-1966, American art historian, b. Germany. Friedlaender pursued a distinguished academic career in Germany until 1934 and afterward taught at New York Univ. His best-known works on 16th- and 17th-century art include Caravaggio Studies (1955), his edition of The Drawings of Nicolas Poussin (3 vol., 1939-55), and Mannerism and Anti-Mannerism in Italian Painting (1957), all basic works in their fields. Friedlaender's David to Delacroix (tr. 1952) is a broad and important survey in the study of 19th-century art. His publications in German include studies on 16th-century architecture at the Vatican (1912) and on Claude Lorrain (1921).
Gropius, Walter, 1883-1969, German-American architect, one of the leaders of modern functional architecture. In Germany his Fagus factory buildings (1910-11) at Alfeld, with their glass walls, metal spandrels, and discerning use of purely industrial features, were among the most advanced works in Europe. After World War I, Gropius became (1918) director of the Weimar School of Art, reorganizing it as the Bauhaus. It was moved in 1925 to Dessau. The complete set of new buildings for it, which Gropius designed (1926), remains one of his finest achievements. He built the Staattheater at Jena (1923), some experimental houses at Stuttgart (1927), and designed residences, workers' dwellings, and industrial buildings. Driven out by the Nazis, he practiced (1934-37) in London with Maxwell Fry and in 1937 emigrated to America, where he headed the school of architecture at Harvard until 1952. His influence on the dissemination of functional architectural theory and the rise of the International style was immense. Practicing his principles of cooperative design, Gropius worked with a group of young architects on the design of the Harvard graduate center. He continued his architectural activity with this group, the Architects Collaborative (TAC), in such works as the U.S. embassy at Athens, the Univ. of Baghdad (1961), and the Grand Central City building, New York City (1963). His writings include The New Architecture and the Bauhaus (tr. 1935) and Scope of World Architecture (1955).

See studies by S. Giedion (1954), J. M. Fitch (1960), and M. Franciscono (1971).

Mosley, Walter, 1952-, African-American author, b. Los Angeles. He was a computer programmer until his first novel, the bestselling mystery Devil in a Blue Dress (1990; film, 1995), was published. A noirish tale of the search for a missing blonde in a seedy, corrupt 1948 Los Angeles, it introduces Mosley's smart, decent, and streetwise black detective, Ezekiel "Easy" Rawlins, a World War II veteran with a jaundiced view of the racist, money-fueled justice system. Mosely's subsequent mysteries move Rawlins forward in time; they include A Red Death (1991), Black Betty (1994), the short stories of Six Easy Pieces (2003), Little Scarlet (2004), and Cinnamon Kiss (2005). A versatile and prolific author, Mosley has written other mysteries, e.g., Fearless Jones (2001); literary fiction, e.g., RL's Dream (1995) and Fortunate Son (2006); science fiction, e.g. Blue Light (1998) and Futureland (2001); and nonfiction, e.g., Workin' on the Chain Gang (2000) and Life Out of Context (2006).

See C. E. Wilson, Jr., Walter Mosley: A Critical Companion (2003).

Rauschenbusch, Walter, 1861-1918, American clergyman, b. Rochester, N.Y. In 1886 he was ordained and began work among German immigrants as pastor of the Second German Baptist Church in New York City. He studied (1891-92) economics and theology at the Univ. of Berlin and industrial relations in England, where he became acquainted with the Fabian Society. In 1902 he was appointed professor of church history at Rochester Theological Seminary. He was a leading figure in the Social Gospel movement, which sought to rectify economic and social injustice. His writings include Christianity and the Social Crisis (1907), Christianizing the Social Order (1912), The Social Principles of Jesus (1916), and A Theology for the Social Gospel (1917).
Reed, Walter, 1851-1902, American army surgeon, b. Gloucester co., Va. In 1900 he was sent to Havana as head of an army commission to investigate an outbreak of yellow fever among American soldiers. Following the earlier suggestion by C. J. Finlay that the disease was transmitted by a mosquito vector rather than by direct contact, Reed and his companions used human volunteers under controlled experimental conditions to prove this conclusively. In 1901 they published their findings that yellow fever was caused by a virus borne by the Stegomyia fasciata mosquito (later designated as Aëdes aegypti).

See studies by H. A. Kelly (3d ed. 1923), A. E. Truby (1943), and L. N. Wood (1943).

Simons, Walter, 1861-1937, German jurist and statesman. He served (1919) as commissioner general to the German delegation at Versailles, but resigned in opposition to the signing of the peace treaty. He later served as foreign minister (1920-21), president of the German supreme court (1922-29), and acting president of the republic (Mar.-May, 1925). He later taught at the Univ. of Leipzig. An outstanding authority on international law, Simons wrote several works, notably The Evolution of International Public Law in Europe since Grotius (1931).
Ritz, Walter, 1878-1909, Swiss physicist. He taught at the universities of Zürich and Göttingen. Ritz's combination principle, confirmed by later research, stated that the frequencies of spectral lines could be expressed as differences between a relatively small number of "terms," later identified by Niels Bohr, a Danish physicist, as the permissible energy levels of the radiating atoms. Ritz also developed important theories of radiation, magnetism, and electrodynamics.
Scheel, Walter, 1919-, German political leader, president of West Germany (1974-79). After serving in World War II, Scheel became interested in politics and joined the Free Democrats, a liberal party. In 1953 he entered the Bundestag, or lower house of parliament, and he continued to be reelected. Late in 1967 he became chairman of the Free Democrats. When the Social Democrat-Free Democrat coalition government was formed in 1969 by Chancellor Willy Brandt, Scheel became foreign minister and vice chancellor. As foreign minister he helped improve relations with East Germany and the Soviet Union. He later (1974-79) served as President, a largely ceremonial office.
Scott, Walter, 1867-1938, Canadian journalist and political leader, b. Ontario. A newspaper editor and publisher, he became (1900) a member of the House of Commons from Assiniboia West and was instrumental in securing the creation of the provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta. An outstanding Liberal, he served as premier of Saskatchewan from 1905 until his retirement in 1916. He also acted as president of the council and minister of education.
Clark, Walter, 1846-1924, American jurist, b. Halifax co., N.C., grad. Univ. of North Carolina (A.B., 1864; A.M., 1867). He entered the Confederate army at 15 and was commended for gallantry in action at Antietam and Fredericksburg. Clark was appointed (1885) judge of the superior court and elected (1889) to the supreme court of North Carolina, where he served until his death. He gained a national reputation for his independent decisions and supported many progressive causes in addresses and articles. Clark prepared an Annotated Code of Civil Procedure, annotated 164 volumes of Supreme Court Reports, edited 16 volumes of the State Records of North Carolina, and did other writing and translating.

See his Papers (ed. by A. L. Brooks and H. T. Lefler, 2 vol., 1948-51); biography by A. L. Brooks (1944).

Clarke, Walter, c.1638-1714, colonial governor of Rhode Island, b. Newport, R.I. He was deputy governor (1679-86, 1700-1714) and was three times governor (1676-77, 1686, 1696-98) of Rhode Island. He is chiefly remembered for his refusal to surrender the Rhode Island charter upon the demand of Sir Edmund Andros.
Benjamin, Walter, 1892-1940, German essayist and critic. He is known for his synthesis of eccentric Marxist theory and Jewish messianism. In particular, his essays on Charles Baudelaire and Franz Kafka as well as his speculation on symbolism, allegory, and the function of art in a mechanical age have profoundly affected contemporary criticism. Benjamin was influenced by his close friendship with the historian of Jewish mysticism Gershom Gerhard Scholem. In 1933, he moved to France because of the rise of the Nazis. When the Nazis invaded France, he fled to Spain, was denied entry, and committed suicide.

Bibliography

See collections of his essays edited by H. Arendt (1968, 1978); his Moscow Diary (1986); The Correspondence of Walter Benjamin, 1910-1940 (1966, tr. 1994) edited by Manfred R. and Evelyn M. Jacobson; Walter Benjamin: The Story of a Friendship (1981) by G. Scholem; studies by R. Wolin (1982), S. Handelman (1991), and B. Witte (1991); essays by G. Scholem (1965, 1981).

Gieseking, Walter, 1895-1956, German pianist, b. Lyons, France, grad. Hanover Municipal Conservatory, 1916. He began touring Europe in 1920 and made his American debut in 1926. A brilliant pianist with a wide repertoire, he especially excelled in performing the music of Debussy. In 1939 he returned to Germany, eventually being cleared of the charge of Nazi collaboration.
Gilbert, Walter, 1932-, American molecular biologist, b. Boston, Ph.D. Cambridge, 1957. In 1968 he became a professor of biophysics at Harvard, where he had taught since 1959. He helped formulate a method for determining the sequence of bases in nucleic acids (RNA and DNA) that made it possible to manufacture genetic material in the laboratory. For his role in this work, he shared the 1980 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Frederick Sanger and Paul Berg.
Heller, Walter, 1915-87, American economist, b. Buffalo, N.Y., grad. Oberlin College (A.B., 1935), Univ. of Wisconsin (M.A. 1938, Ph.D. 1941). He worked for the U.S. Treasury before joining the Univ. of Minnesota faculty in 1946 as a professor of economics. After service as a consultant to the United Nations (1952-60) and to the state of Minnesota (1955-60), he was chairman (1961-64) of the Council of Economic Advisers under President John F. Kennedy. He left the council in 1964 but continued to serve as a consultant to President Lyndon B. Johnson until 1969. Heller advocated deficit spending to spur economic growth, and federal revenue sharing with the states. Heller became a Regent's Professor at the Univ. of Minnesota in 1967; he retired in 1986. His writings include Monetary vs. Fiscal Policy (1969; with Milton Friedman) and The Economy (1976).
de la Mare, Walter, 1873-1956, English poet and novelist. For many years he worked in the accounting department of the Anglo-American Oil Company. Much of his verse and prose shows delight in imaginative excursions into the shadowed world between the real and the unreal. Included among his books of poetry are Songs of Childhood (1902), The Listeners (1912), Peacock Pie (1913), Poems for Children (1930), and The Fleeting and Other Poems (1933). His fiction includes Henry Brocken (1904), The Return (1910), Memoirs of a Midget (1921), and On the Edge (1930), a collection of somewhat macabre short stories.

See J. Atkins, Walter de la Mare: An Exploration (1975); D. Cecil, Walter de la Mare (1978).

Ulbricht, Walter, 1893-1973, Communist leader in the German Democratic Republic. A founder of the German Communist party, he fled Germany in 1933 and went to Moscow, where he was a member of the politburo of the exiled German Communist party. Ulbricht entered Germany with the Russian troops in 1945. In 1949 he became deputy premier of the German Democratic Republic and in 1950 was named secretary-general of the Socialist Unity party, successor to the Communist party. Leader of East Germany from that time, he became chairman of the council of state in 1960. A hard-line Communist who was opposed to normalizing relations with West Germany, Ulbricht was responsible for the building (1961) of the Berlin Wall. He strongly supported close ties with the USSR and sent troops to join the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968. In 1971 he was replaced as secretary-general by Erich Honecker.

See biography by C. Stern (tr. 1965).

Hagen, Walter, 1892-1969, American golfer, b. Rochester, N.Y. Hagen won the U.S. Open championship in 1914 and again in 1919; he took the British Open title in 1922, 1924, 1928, and 1929. "The Haig," as he was known to his admirers, also won the U.S. Professional Golfers Association championship five times (1921, 1924-27), the Australian, Canadian, French, and Belgian open tournaments, and many other titles of lesser importance. He played on five Ryder Cup teams.
Hampden, Walter, 1879-1955, American actor, b. Brooklyn, N.Y., whose original name was Walter Hampden Dougherty. He made his first appearance in London in 1901. Returning to the United States in 1907, he supported Nazimova in an Ibsen series and later appeared in Kennedy's Servant in the House and in Shakespearean drama. In 1923 he was first seen as Cyrano de Bergerac, a role that he often repeated. After assuming management of the Colonial Theatre, he renamed it Hampden's and appeared there (1925-30) with his own company. A revered figure of the American theater, Hampden was president of the Players' Club for 27 years.
Butler, Walter, 1752?-1781, Loyalist officer in the American Revolution, b. New York State; son of John Butler. He was an officer in his father's Loyalist troop, Butler's Rangers. He was captured (1777) by the patriots and sentenced to death, but the sentence was commuted. He escaped and in 1778 led the Rangers in a raid. This ended with the Cherry Valley massacre, for which his Native American commander, Joseph Brant, blamed Butler. Walter Butler was killed in a skirmish with patriot troops under Marinus Willet in the Mohawk valley.

See H. Swiggett, War out of Niagara (1933, repr. 1963).

Crane, Walter, 1845-1915, English designer, illustrator, and painter. As a painter he is grouped with the later Pre-Raphaelites, but he is better known for his illustrations of the works of Spenser and of Hawthorne's Wonder Book and Grimm's Fairy Tales. Seeking with William Morris to ally art with everyday life, he designed textiles, glass windows, tapestries, and house decorations. Crane's interest in socialism is expressed in his cartoons for Commonweal and Justice. In 1888 he founded the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society of London.

See his memoirs, An Artist's Reminiscences (1907); G. Smith, ed., Walter Crane, 1845-1915 (1989).

Colton, Walter, 1797-1851, American editor, writer, and clergyman, b. Rutland co., Vt. He became a naval chaplain in 1831. His books Ship and Shore (1835), A Visit to Constantinople and Athens (1836), and Deck and Port (1850) are based upon his naval experiences. In 1846 he was appointed chief judge of Monterey, Calif., and founded the Californian, California's first newspaper. Colton's book Three Years in California (1850) is an excellent historical account of this period.
Lippmann, Walter, 1889-1974, American essayist and editor, b. New York City. He was associate editor of the New Republic in its early days (1914-17), but at the outbreak of World War I he left to become Assistant Secretary of War, later helping to prepare data for the peace conference. From 1921 to 1931 he was on the editorial staff of the New York World, serving as editor the last two years. In 1931 he began writing for the New York Herald Tribune a highly influential syndicated column, which moved to the Washington Post in 1962. He ceased writing a regular newspaper column in 1967. Lippmann's early books, written when he was a champion of liberalism, include A Preface to Politics (1913), Public Opinion (1922), and A Preface to Morals (1929). An early supporter of Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal, Lippmann became disillusioned and condemned collectivism in The Good Society (1937). His political stance became one of moderate detachment, and he won distinction as a farsighted and incisive analyst of foreign policy. A special Pulitzer Prize citation (1958) praised his powers of news analysis, which he demonstrated in U.S. War Aims (1944), The Cold War (1947), Isolation and Alliances (1952), and Western Unity and the Common Market (1962).

See M. W. Childs and J. B. Reston, ed., Walter Lippmann and His Times (1959); E. W. Weeks, ed., Conversations with Walter Lippmann (1965); R. Steel, Walter Lippmann and the American Century (1980).

Kohn, Walter, 1923-, American physicist, b. Vienna, Austria, Ph.D. Harvard, 1948. Kohn taught at Carnegie Institute of Technology from 1950 to 1960 and at the Univ. of California, San Diego, from 1960 to 1979. He has been a professor at the Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, since 1979. In 1998 Kohn received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry with John Pople for his development of the density-functional theory, a method for calculating the properties of molecules that was computationally simpler than previous techniques. With the advent of supercomputers, his work has become a critical tool in the field of electronic materials science.
Baade, Walter, 1893-1960, German-born American astronomer. From 1919 to 1931 he was on the staff of the Hamburg observatory; from 1931 to 1958, at the Mt. Wilson observatory. Baade studied the Andromeda Galaxy, M31, and other spiral galaxies and presented evidence for the existence of two different stellar populations, the younger Population I, and the older Population II. From these data he inferred that similar spiral patterns could be found in the Milky Way. Perhaps his most important contribution came in 1952 from observations of Cepheid variables in nearby galaxies through the 200-in. reflecting telescope at the Palomar Observatory; he calculated that it was necessary to double the cosmic-distance scale, i.e., the distances between external galaxies and the Milky Way. With Fritz Zwicky and Rudolf Minkowski he distinguished two types of supernova based on their spectra and on their maximum absolute magnitudes. In 1949 he discovered Icarus, an asteroid whose orbit takes it close to Earth.

See W. Baade, Evolution of Stars and Galaxies (1963).

Bagehot, Walter, 1826-77, English social scientist. After working in his father's banking firm, he edited (1860-77) the Economist (which had been founded by his father-in-law) and helped establish its high reputation as a financial journal. From these activities came his noted study of the English banking system, Lombard Street (1873). Bagehot's classic English Constitution (1864) distinguished between the effective institutions of government and those, like the House of Lords, that had entered decay. His other important books include Literary Studies (1879) and Economic Studies (1880). In Physics and Politics (1875) he made a pioneer analysis of the interrelationship between the natural and the social sciences. He believed that investments expanded or contracted according to the mood of the market. Bagehot was also a noted literary critic of his day.

See his collected works (10 vol., 1915); biography by W. Irvine (1939, repr. 1970); studies by A. Buchan (1960) and N. St. John-Stervas (1963).

(born April 25, 1873, Charlton, Kent, Eng.—died June 22, 1956, Twickenham, Middlesex) British poet and novelist. De la Mare was of French Huguenot descent. He was educated in London and worked for the Standard Oil Co. (1890–1908) before turning to writing, initially under the pseudonym Walter Ramal. He wrote for both adults and children. His collection Come Hither (1923) was especially highly praised. Memoirs of a Midget (1921) was his best-known novel. His Collected Stories for Children appeared in 1947.

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orig. Bruno Walter Schlesinger

(born Sept. 15, 1876, Berlin, Ger.—died Feb. 17, 1962, Beverly Hills, Calif., U.S.) German-born U.S. conductor. An associate of Gustav Mahler, he was long a faithful proponent and interpreter of Mahler's music, giving the world premieres of Das Lied von der Erde (1911) and the Symphony No. 9 (1912). He held positions in Munich (1913–22) and at Covent Garden (1924–31), but thereafter he served more often as a guest conductor than a music director. After moving to the U.S. in 1939, he often conducted the New York Philharmonic (recording as the Columbia or CBS Symphony), the Metropolitan Opera, the Philadelphia Orchestra, and the Los Angeles Philharmonic, and he was admired for the warmth of his interpretations, primarily of the Viennese school.

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Walt Whitman, photograph by Mathew Brady.

(born May 31, 1819, West Hills, Long Island, N.Y., U.S.—died March 26, 1892, Camden, N.J.) U.S. poet, journalist, and essayist. Whitman lived in Brooklyn as a boy and left school at age 12. He went on to hold a great variety of jobs, including writing and editing for periodicals. His revolutionary poetry dealt with extremely private experiences (including sexuality) while celebrating the collective experience of an idealized democratic American life. His Leaves of Grass (1st ed., 1855), revised and much expanded in successive editions that incorporated his subsequent poetry, was too frank and unconventional to win wide acceptance in its day, but it was hailed by figures such as Ralph Waldo Emerson and exerted a strong influence on American and foreign literature. Written without rhyme or traditional metre, poems such as “I Sing the Body Electric” and “Song of Myself” assert the beauty of the human body, physical health, and sexuality; later editions included “Crossing Brooklyn Ferry,” “Out of the Cradle Endlessly Rocking,” and the elegies on Abraham Lincoln “O Captain! My Captain!” and “When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom'd.” Whitman served as a volunteer in Washington hospitals during the Civil War. The prose Democratic Vistas (1871) and Specimen Days & Collect (1882–83) drew on his wartime experiences and subsequent reflections. His powerful influence in the 20th century can be seen in the work of poets as diverse as Pablo Neruda, Fernando Pessoa, and Allen Ginsberg.

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(born June 30, 1893, Leipzig, Ger.—died Aug. 1, 1973, East Berlin, E.Ger.) German communist leader and head of East Germany (1960–73). He joined the German Communist Party after World War I and was elected to its central committee in 1923. He led the party in Berlin (1929–33), then fled abroad after the Nazi takeover. As an agent for the Comintern, he persecuted Trotskyites and other deviationists. In 1945 he returned to the Soviet-occupied zone of Germany, helped form the Socialist Unity Party (SED) in East Germany, and served as its general secretary (1950–71). He served as deputy premier of East Germany (1949–60) and as chairman of its council of state (1960–73). A constant foe of West Germany, he built the Berlin Wall in 1961. He exercised rigid control over East Germany while developing its industrial strength. He was forced to retire as first secretary of the SED in 1971 when the Soviet Union opened new relations with West Germany, but he retained his position as head of state until his death.

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(born Jan. 30, 1775, Warwick, Warwickshire, Eng.—died Sept. 17, 1864, Florence, Italy) British writer. He was educated at Rugby School and Oxford but left both over disagreements with the authorities. A classicist, he originally wrote many of his works in Latin. Though he wrote lyrics, plays, and heroic poems, he is best remembered for his multivolume Imaginary Conversations, prose dialogues between historical personages (1824–53). He spent much of his life in France and Italy.

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(born March 17, 1881, Frauenfeld, Switz.—died Aug. 12, 1973, Locarno) Swiss physiologist. He worked at the University of Zürich (1917–51). His interests centred on the nerves that control automatic functions such as digestion and excretion and that also trigger the activities of a group of organs that respond to complex stimuli, such as stress. Using fine electrodes to stimulate or destroy specific areas of the brain in cats and dogs, Hess mapped the control centres for each function to such a degree that he could bring about the physical behaviour pattern of a cat confronted by a dog simply by stimulating the proper points on the cat's hypothalamus. He shared a 1949 Nobel Prize with Antonio Egas Moniz.

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Walter Reed

(born Sept. 13, 1851, Belroi, Va., U.S.—died Nov. 22, 1902, Washington, D.C.) U.S. pathologist and bacteriologist. He received a medical degree at age 18 from the University of Virginia and entered the Army Medical Corps in 1875. He investigated the spread of typhoid fever in military camps during the Spanish-American War and was later curator of the Army Medical Museum in Washington, D.C. Yellow fever was believed to be spread by bedding and other articles, but Carlos Finlay had theorized in 1886 that it was carried by insects, and Reed's team ruled out a bacterium suspected as the cause and found patterns of spread that supported the insect theory. Controlled experiments proved transmission by mosquito bite, and in 1901 efforts to combat an outbreak in Havana succeeded within 90 days.

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(born Sept. 1, 1907, Wheeling, W.Va., U.S.—died May 9, 1970, Pellston, Mich.) U.S. labour leader. He became an apprentice tool- and diemaker at age 16. He traveled around the world in the 1930s, developing a lifelong distaste for communism after spending two years in a Soviet auto factory. He became a local union leader in Detroit, Mich., and helped organize sit-down strikes—during which he suffered brutal physical attacks—that made the United Automobile Workers (UAW) a power in the auto industry. As president of the UAW from 1946 until his death, he was an effective negotiator of wages-and-hours gains. He became president of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) in 1952 and was an architect of the AFL-CIO merger in 1955. He was second in power to George Meany at the AFL-CIO; however, their repeated clashes, partly stemming from Reuther's strong support for civil rights and opposition to the Vietnam War, resulted in Reuther's leading the UAW out of the AFL-CIO in 1968 and forming a short-lived federation with the Teamsters Union. He died in a plane crash.

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Walter Johnson.

(born Nov. 6, 1887, Humboldt, Kan., U.S.—died Dec. 10, 1946, Washington, D.C.) U.S. baseball pitcher. Johnson had perhaps the greatest fastball in the history of the game. A right-handed thrower with a sidearm delivery who batted right as well, Johnson pitched for the Washington Senators of the American League from 1907 through 1927. He holds the all-time record for most shutouts (110), ranks second to Cy Young in wins (416), and established the record for his time for most strikeouts (3,508; broken in 1983). After his playing career, he became a manager with the Senators and later with the Cleveland Indians.

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(born Sept. 23, 1889, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Dec. 14, 1974, New York) U.S. newspaper commentator and author. Educated at Harvard, he became an editor at the fledgling New Republic (1914–17). His thinking influenced Woodrow Wilson, and he took part in the negotiations that culminated in the Treaty of Versailles. After writing for and editing the reformist World, he moved to the New York Herald-Tribune, where he began his “Today and Tomorrow” column in 1931; eventually widely syndicated, it won two Pulitzer Prizes (1958, 1962), and Lippmann became one of the most respected political columnists in the world. His books include A Preface to Politics (1913); Public Opinion (1922), perhaps his most influential work; The Phantom Public (1925); and The Good Society (1937).

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(born Nov. 4, 1916, St. Joseph, Mo., U.S.) U.S. journalist and television newscaster. He began his career as a reporter with the Houston Post and later worked for United Press (1939–48) and served as a war correspondent in Europe (1942–45). He joined CBS in 1950 as a news reporter and became managing editor and anchor of the widely watched CBS Evening News (1962–81). He hosted numerous documentaries and special reports, notably on the assassination of Pres. John F. Kennedy and the 1969 Moon landing. His reassuring, avuncular manner made him one of the most trusted figures in U.S. broadcasting.

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(born April 25, 1873, Charlton, Kent, Eng.—died June 22, 1956, Twickenham, Middlesex) British poet and novelist. De la Mare was of French Huguenot descent. He was educated in London and worked for the Standard Oil Co. (1890–1908) before turning to writing, initially under the pseudonym Walter Ramal. He wrote for both adults and children. His collection Come Hither (1923) was especially highly praised. Memoirs of a Midget (1921) was his best-known novel. His Collected Stories for Children appeared in 1947.

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(born July 25, 1954, Columbia, Miss., U.S.—died Nov. 1, 1999, Barrington, Ill.) U.S. football player. He played football at Jackson State University and from 1975 to 1987 was a member of the NFL Chicago Bears. He retired as the all-time leader for combined yardage (rushing, kick returning, and pass receiving; 21,803 yds), seasons with 1,000 or more yards rushing (10), and rushing yardage (16,726). In 2002 his career rushing record was broken by Emmitt Smith and his combined yardage record was broken by Jerry Rice. Payton is considered among the greatest running backs in football history.

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(born Aug. 4, 1839, Shadwell, London, Eng.—died July 30, 1894, Oxford, Oxfordshire) English critic, essayist, and humanist. Elected a fellow at the University of Oxford in 1864, Pater made his reputation as a scholar and aesthete with essays collected in Studies in the History of the Renaissance (1873). Written in a delicate, fastidious style, the essays introduced his influential advocacy of “art for art's sake,” which contrasted with the prevailing emphasis on art's moral or educational values and became a cardinal doctrine of Aestheticism. Marius the Epicurean (1885), a philosophical romance on the ideal life, is his most substantial work.

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Walter Gropius, photograph by Erich Hartmann.

(born May 18, 1883, Berlin, Ger.—died July 5, 1969, Boston, Mass., U.S.) German-U.S. architect and educator. The son of an architect, he studied in Munich and Berlin and in 1907 joined the office of Peter Behrens. In 1919 he became director of the Staatliches Bauhaus Weimar. He designed a new school building and housing for the Bauhaus when it moved to Dessau (1925); with its dynamic International Style composition, asymmetrical plan, smooth white walls set with horizontal windows, and flat roof, the building became a monument of the Modernist movement. In 1934 Gropius fled Germany for Britain, and in 1937 he arrived in the U.S, taking a position at Harvard University. At the Bauhaus and as chair (1938–52) of Harvard's architecture department, he established a new prototype of design education, which ended the 200-year supremacy of the French École des Beaux-Arts. Among his most important ideas was his belief that all design—whether of a chair, a building, or a city—should be approached in essentially the same way: through a systematic study of the particular needs and problems involved, taking into account modern construction materials and techniques without reference to previous forms or styles.

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(born Jan. 5, 1928, Ceylon, Minn., U.S.) U.S. politician. He was active in Minnesota's Farmer-Labor Party and worked for Hubert H. Humphrey's U.S. Senate campaign in 1948. After graduating from the University of Minnesota law school in 1956, he was Minnesota's attorney general from 1960 to his appointment in 1964 to fill Humphrey's unexpired Senate term when Humphrey won election as vice president under Lyndon B. Johnson. He won election to the Senate in 1966 and reelection in 1972. In 1976 he was elected vice president under Jimmy Carter. In 1984 he won the Democratic presidential nomination but lost the election to Ronald Reagan. He resumed his law practice and later served as ambassador to Japan (1993–96). In 2002 he campaigned for a seat in the U.S. Senate after Paul Wellstone, a Minnesota senator, died in a plane crash days before the election; Mondale was narrowly defeated.

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Walt Disney, 1950.

(born Dec. 5, 1901, Chicago, Ill., U.S.—died Dec. 15, 1966, Los Angeles, Calif.) U.S. animator and entertainment executive. In the 1920s he joined with his brother Roy and his friend Ub Iwerks (1901–71) to establish an animation studio. Together they created Mickey Mouse, the cheerful rodent—customarily drawn by Iwerks, with Disney providing the voice—that starred in the first animated film with sound, Steamboat Willie (1928). The brothers formed Walt Disney Productions (later the Disney Co.) in 1929. Mickey Mouse's instant popularity led them to invent other characters such as Donald Duck, Pluto, and Goofy and to make several short cartoon films, including The Three Little Pigs (1933). Their first full-length animated film, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937), was followed by classics such as Pinocchio (1940), Fantasia (1940), and Cinderella (1950). A perfectionist, an innovator, and a skilled businessman, Walt Disney maintained tight control over the company in both creative and business aspects. He oversaw the company's expansion into live-action films, television programming, theme parks, and mass merchandising. By his death in 1966, Disney had transformed the family entertainment industry and influenced more than one generation of American children.

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(born Sept. 16, 1541, Carmarthen, Carmarthenshire, Wales—died Sept. 22, 1576, Dublin, Ire.) English soldier. Born to a h1d family, he helped suppress a rebellion in northern England in 1569 and was made earl of Essex in 1572. In 1573 he offered to subdue and colonize, at his own expense, a portion of Ulster that had not accepted English overlordship. There he treacherously captured and executed the Irish rebel leaders and massacred hundreds of the populace, contributing to Irish bitterness toward the English. Elizabeth I commanded him to break off the enterprise in 1575. He died of dysentery shortly after returning to Ireland from England.

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(born Aug. 15, 1845, Liverpool, Eng.—died March 14, 1915, Horsham) English illustrator, painter, and designer. The son of a portrait painter, he studied Italian Old Masters and Japanese prints. The ideas of the Pre-Raphaelites and John Ruskin inspired his early paintings. He achieved international popularity designing Art Nouveau textiles and wallpapers but is chiefly known for his illustrations of children's books. In 1894 he worked with William Morris on The Story of the Glittering Plain, a book printed in the style of 16th-century German and Italian woodcuts. He belonged to the Art Workers' Guild, and in 1888 he founded the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society. Seealso Arts and Crafts Movement.

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(born Oct. 19, 1871, Prairie du Chien, Wis., U.S.—died Oct. 1, 1945, Franklin, N.H.) U.S. neurologist and physiologist. He was the first to use X rays in physiological studies. He also investigated hemorrhagic and traumatic shock during World War I and worked on methods of blood storage. He researched the emergency functions of the sympathetic nervous system and homeostasis and sympathin, an epinephrine-like substance released by certain neurons. With Philip Bard he developed the Cannon-Bard theory, which proposed that emotional and physiological responses to external situations arise simultaneously and that both prepare the body to deal with the situation.

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(born July 15, 1892, Berlin, Ger.—died Sept. 27?, 1940, near Port-Bou, Spain) German literary critic. Born into a prosperous Jewish family, Benjamin studied philosophy and worked as a literary critic and translator in Berlin from 1920 until 1933, when he fled to France to avoid persecution. The Nazi takeover of France led him to flee again in 1940; he committed suicide at the Spanish border on hearing that he would be turned over to the Gestapo. Posthumous publication of his essays has won him a reputation as the leading German literary critic of the first half of the 20th century; he was also one of the first serious writers about film and photography. His independence and originality are evident in the essays collected in Illuminations (1961) and Reflections (1979). His writings on art reflect his reading of Karl Marx and his friendships with Bertolt Brecht and Theodor Adorno.

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Walter Bagehot, mezzotint by Norman Hirst, after a photograph.

(born Feb. 3, 1826, Langport, Somerset, Eng.—died March 24, 1877, Langport) English economist, political analyst, and journalist. While working in his uncle's bank, Bagehot wrote literary essays and economic articles that led to his involvement with The Economist. As its editor from 1860, he helped make it one of the leading business and political journals in the world. His classic The English Constitution (1867) describes how the British system of government really operates behind its facade. His other works include Physics and Politics (1872), one of the earliest attempts to apply the concept of evolution to societies, and Lombard Street (1873), a study of banking methods. His literary essays have been continually republished.

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Walter Gropius, photograph by Erich Hartmann.

(born May 18, 1883, Berlin, Ger.—died July 5, 1969, Boston, Mass., U.S.) German-U.S. architect and educator. The son of an architect, he studied in Munich and Berlin and in 1907 joined the office of Peter Behrens. In 1919 he became director of the Staatliches Bauhaus Weimar. He designed a new school building and housing for the Bauhaus when it moved to Dessau (1925); with its dynamic International Style composition, asymmetrical plan, smooth white walls set with horizontal windows, and flat roof, the building became a monument of the Modernist movement. In 1934 Gropius fled Germany for Britain, and in 1937 he arrived in the U.S, taking a position at Harvard University. At the Bauhaus and as chair (1938–52) of Harvard's architecture department, he established a new prototype of design education, which ended the 200-year supremacy of the French École des Beaux-Arts. Among his most important ideas was his belief that all design—whether of a chair, a building, or a city—should be approached in essentially the same way: through a systematic study of the particular needs and problems involved, taking into account modern construction materials and techniques without reference to previous forms or styles.

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(born June 30, 1893, Leipzig, Ger.—died Aug. 1, 1973, East Berlin, E.Ger.) German communist leader and head of East Germany (1960–73). He joined the German Communist Party after World War I and was elected to its central committee in 1923. He led the party in Berlin (1929–33), then fled abroad after the Nazi takeover. As an agent for the Comintern, he persecuted Trotskyites and other deviationists. In 1945 he returned to the Soviet-occupied zone of Germany, helped form the Socialist Unity Party (SED) in East Germany, and served as its general secretary (1950–71). He served as deputy premier of East Germany (1949–60) and as chairman of its council of state (1960–73). A constant foe of West Germany, he built the Berlin Wall in 1961. He exercised rigid control over East Germany while developing its industrial strength. He was forced to retire as first secretary of the SED in 1971 when the Soviet Union opened new relations with West Germany, but he retained his position as head of state until his death.

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(born 1554?, Hayes Barton, near Budleigh Salterton, Devon, Eng.—died Oct. 29, 1618, London) English adventurer and favourite of Elizabeth I. He joined his half brother Humphrey Gilbert on a piratical expedition against the Spanish (1578) then fought against the Irish rebels in Munster (1580). His outspoken views on English policy in Ireland caught the attention of Elizabeth I, who made him her favourite at court. In 1584 he sent an expedition to explore the coast north of Florida, which he named Virginia, and to establish an unsuccessful colony at Roanoke Island. He was knighted by Elizabeth in 1585. Out of favour at court from circa 1592, he led an unsuccessful expedition up the Orinoco River in search of gold, which he described in The Discoverie of Guiana (1596). When Elizabeth died (1603), he was accused of plotting to depose James I and was imprisoned in the Tower of London. Released in 1616, he led another unsuccessful expedition to search for gold in Guyana. When his men burned a Spanish settlement, he was rearrested by James and executed, at the demand of the Spanish ambassador, under Raleigh's original sentence for treason.

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(born Jan. 14, 1904, London, Eng.—died Jan. 18, 1980, Broadchalke, Salisbury, Wiltshire) British photographer and designer. When he received his first camera at age 11, he began making portraits of his sisters. In the 1920s he became staff photographer at Vanity Fair and Vogue. In Beaton's exotic and bizarre portraits, the sitter is only one element of an overall decorative composition dominated by flamboyant backgrounds. His photographs of the siege of Britain were published in Winged Squadrons (1942). After the war he designed costumes and stage sets, including those for the movies Gigi (1958) and My Fair Lady (1964).

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(born Sept. 1, 1907, Wheeling, W.Va., U.S.—died May 9, 1970, Pellston, Mich.) U.S. labour leader. He became an apprentice tool- and diemaker at age 16. He traveled around the world in the 1930s, developing a lifelong distaste for communism after spending two years in a Soviet auto factory. He became a local union leader in Detroit, Mich., and helped organize sit-down strikes—during which he suffered brutal physical attacks—that made the United Automobile Workers (UAW) a power in the auto industry. As president of the UAW from 1946 until his death, he was an effective negotiator of wages-and-hours gains. He became president of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) in 1952 and was an architect of the AFL-CIO merger in 1955. He was second in power to George Meany at the AFL-CIO; however, their repeated clashes, partly stemming from Reuther's strong support for civil rights and opposition to the Vietnam War, resulted in Reuther's leading the UAW out of the AFL-CIO in 1968 and forming a short-lived federation with the Teamsters Union. He died in a plane crash.

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Walter Reed

(born Sept. 13, 1851, Belroi, Va., U.S.—died Nov. 22, 1902, Washington, D.C.) U.S. pathologist and bacteriologist. He received a medical degree at age 18 from the University of Virginia and entered the Army Medical Corps in 1875. He investigated the spread of typhoid fever in military camps during the Spanish-American War and was later curator of the Army Medical Museum in Washington, D.C. Yellow fever was believed to be spread by bedding and other articles, but Carlos Finlay had theorized in 1886 that it was carried by insects, and Reed's team ruled out a bacterium suspected as the cause and found patterns of spread that supported the insect theory. Controlled experiments proved transmission by mosquito bite, and in 1901 efforts to combat an outbreak in Havana succeeded within 90 days.

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(born 1554?, Hayes Barton, near Budleigh Salterton, Devon, Eng.—died Oct. 29, 1618, London) English adventurer and favourite of Elizabeth I. He joined his half brother Humphrey Gilbert on a piratical expedition against the Spanish (1578) then fought against the Irish rebels in Munster (1580). His outspoken views on English policy in Ireland caught the attention of Elizabeth I, who made him her favourite at court. In 1584 he sent an expedition to explore the coast north of Florida, which he named Virginia, and to establish an unsuccessful colony at Roanoke Island. He was knighted by Elizabeth in 1585. Out of favour at court from circa 1592, he led an unsuccessful expedition up the Orinoco River in search of gold, which he described in The Discoverie of Guiana (1596). When Elizabeth died (1603), he was accused of plotting to depose James I and was imprisoned in the Tower of London. Released in 1616, he led another unsuccessful expedition to search for gold in Guyana. When his men burned a Spanish settlement, he was rearrested by James and executed, at the demand of the Spanish ambassador, under Raleigh's original sentence for treason.

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(born July 25, 1954, Columbia, Miss., U.S.—died Nov. 1, 1999, Barrington, Ill.) U.S. football player. He played football at Jackson State University and from 1975 to 1987 was a member of the NFL Chicago Bears. He retired as the all-time leader for combined yardage (rushing, kick returning, and pass receiving; 21,803 yds), seasons with 1,000 or more yards rushing (10), and rushing yardage (16,726). In 2002 his career rushing record was broken by Emmitt Smith and his combined yardage record was broken by Jerry Rice. Payton is considered among the greatest running backs in football history.

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(born Aug. 4, 1839, Shadwell, London, Eng.—died July 30, 1894, Oxford, Oxfordshire) English critic, essayist, and humanist. Elected a fellow at the University of Oxford in 1864, Pater made his reputation as a scholar and aesthete with essays collected in Studies in the History of the Renaissance (1873). Written in a delicate, fastidious style, the essays introduced his influential advocacy of “art for art's sake,” which contrasted with the prevailing emphasis on art's moral or educational values and became a cardinal doctrine of Aestheticism. Marius the Epicurean (1885), a philosophical romance on the ideal life, is his most substantial work.

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(born Jan. 5, 1928, Ceylon, Minn., U.S.) U.S. politician. He was active in Minnesota's Farmer-Labor Party and worked for Hubert H. Humphrey's U.S. Senate campaign in 1948. After graduating from the University of Minnesota law school in 1956, he was Minnesota's attorney general from 1960 to his appointment in 1964 to fill Humphrey's unexpired Senate term when Humphrey won election as vice president under Lyndon B. Johnson. He won election to the Senate in 1966 and reelection in 1972. In 1976 he was elected vice president under Jimmy Carter. In 1984 he won the Democratic presidential nomination but lost the election to Ronald Reagan. He resumed his law practice and later served as ambassador to Japan (1993–96). In 2002 he campaigned for a seat in the U.S. Senate after Paul Wellstone, a Minnesota senator, died in a plane crash days before the election; Mondale was narrowly defeated.

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Ernst Mayr

(born July 5, 1904, Kempten, Ger.—died Feb. 3, 2005, Bedford, Mass., U.S.) German-born U.S. biologist. He received a Ph.D. (1926) from the University of Berlin and immigrated to the U.S. in the early 1930s. While a curator at the American Museum of Natural History (1932–53), he wrote more than 100 papers on avian taxonomy. From 1953 to 1975 he taught at Harvard University. His early studies of speciation and of founder populations made him a leader in the development of the modern synthetic theory of evolution. In 1940 Mayr proposed a definition of species that won wide acceptance and led to the discovery of some previously unknown species. His influential works include Systematics and the Origin of Species (1942) and The Growth of Biological Thought (1982).

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Luis Alvarez

(born June 13, 1911, San Francisco, Calif., U.S.—died Sept. 1, 1988, Berkeley, Calif.) U.S. experimental physicist. He joined the faculty of the University of California at Berkeley in 1936, where he would remain until 1978. In 1938 he discovered that some radioactive elements decay when an orbital electron merges with the atom's nucleus, producing an element with an atomic number smaller by one, a form of beta decay. In 1939 he and Felix Bloch (1905–83) made the first measurement of the magnetic moment of the neutron. During World War II he developed a radar guidance system for landing aircraft and participated in the Manhattan Project to develop the atomic bomb. He later helped construct the first proton linear accelerator and constructed the liquid hydrogen bubble chamber. With his son, the geologist Walter Alvarez (b. 1940), he helped develop the theory that links the dinosaurs' extinction with a giant asteroid or comet impact. For work that included the discovery of many subatomic particles, he received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1968.

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(born Sept. 23, 1889, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Dec. 14, 1974, New York) U.S. newspaper commentator and author. Educated at Harvard, he became an editor at the fledgling New Republic (1914–17). His thinking influenced Woodrow Wilson, and he took part in the negotiations that culminated in the Treaty of Versailles. After writing for and editing the reformist World, he moved to the New York Herald-Tribune, where he began his “Today and Tomorrow” column in 1931; eventually widely syndicated, it won two Pulitzer Prizes (1958, 1962), and Lippmann became one of the most respected political columnists in the world. His books include A Preface to Politics (1913); Public Opinion (1922), perhaps his most influential work; The Phantom Public (1925); and The Good Society (1937).

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(born Jan. 30, 1775, Warwick, Warwickshire, Eng.—died Sept. 17, 1864, Florence, Italy) British writer. He was educated at Rugby School and Oxford but left both over disagreements with the authorities. A classicist, he originally wrote many of his works in Latin. Though he wrote lyrics, plays, and heroic poems, he is best remembered for his multivolume Imaginary Conversations, prose dialogues between historical personages (1824–53). He spent much of his life in France and Italy.

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Walter Johnson.

(born Nov. 6, 1887, Humboldt, Kan., U.S.—died Dec. 10, 1946, Washington, D.C.) U.S. baseball pitcher. Johnson had perhaps the greatest fastball in the history of the game. A right-handed thrower with a sidearm delivery who batted right as well, Johnson pitched for the Washington Senators of the American League from 1907 through 1927. He holds the all-time record for most shutouts (110), ranks second to Cy Young in wins (416), and established the record for his time for most strikeouts (3,508; broken in 1983). After his playing career, he became a manager with the Senators and later with the Cleveland Indians.

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(born March 17, 1881, Frauenfeld, Switz.—died Aug. 12, 1973, Locarno) Swiss physiologist. He worked at the University of Zürich (1917–51). His interests centred on the nerves that control automatic functions such as digestion and excretion and that also trigger the activities of a group of organs that respond to complex stimuli, such as stress. Using fine electrodes to stimulate or destroy specific areas of the brain in cats and dogs, Hess mapped the control centres for each function to such a degree that he could bring about the physical behaviour pattern of a cat confronted by a dog simply by stimulating the proper points on the cat's hypothalamus. He shared a 1949 Nobel Prize with Antonio Egas Moniz.

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(born April 26, 1894, Alexandria, Egypt—died Aug. 17, 1987, West Berlin, W.Ger.) German Nazi leader. He joined the fledgling Nazi Party in 1920 and soon became Adolf Hitler's friend. After participating in the Beer Hall Putsch (1923), he escaped but returned voluntarily to prison, where he took down dictation for Hitler's Mein Kampf. He became Hitler's private secretary and, in 1933, deputy party leader. In the early days of World War II his power waned. In 1941 he created an international sensation when he secretly landed by parachute in Scotland on an abortive mission to negotiate peace between Britain and Germany. The British government held him as a prisoner of war, and his peace initiative was rejected by Hitler. He was given a life sentence at the Nürnberg trials, and from 1966 he was the sole inmate at Spandau prison.

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(born Sept. 16, 1541, Carmarthen, Carmarthenshire, Wales—died Sept. 22, 1576, Dublin, Ire.) English soldier. Born to a h1d family, he helped suppress a rebellion in northern England in 1569 and was made earl of Essex in 1572. In 1573 he offered to subdue and colonize, at his own expense, a portion of Ulster that had not accepted English overlordship. There he treacherously captured and executed the Irish rebel leaders and massacred hundreds of the populace, contributing to Irish bitterness toward the English. Elizabeth I commanded him to break off the enterprise in 1575. He died of dysentery shortly after returning to Ireland from England.

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Ernst Mayr

(born July 5, 1904, Kempten, Ger.—died Feb. 3, 2005, Bedford, Mass., U.S.) German-born U.S. biologist. He received a Ph.D. (1926) from the University of Berlin and immigrated to the U.S. in the early 1930s. While a curator at the American Museum of Natural History (1932–53), he wrote more than 100 papers on avian taxonomy. From 1953 to 1975 he taught at Harvard University. His early studies of speciation and of founder populations made him a leader in the development of the modern synthetic theory of evolution. In 1940 Mayr proposed a definition of species that won wide acceptance and led to the discovery of some previously unknown species. His influential works include Systematics and the Origin of Species (1942) and The Growth of Biological Thought (1982).

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(born Nov. 4, 1916, St. Joseph, Mo., U.S.) U.S. journalist and television newscaster. He began his career as a reporter with the Houston Post and later worked for United Press (1939–48) and served as a war correspondent in Europe (1942–45). He joined CBS in 1950 as a news reporter and became managing editor and anchor of the widely watched CBS Evening News (1962–81). He hosted numerous documentaries and special reports, notably on the assassination of Pres. John F. Kennedy and the 1969 Moon landing. His reassuring, avuncular manner made him one of the most trusted figures in U.S. broadcasting.

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(born Aug. 15, 1845, Liverpool, Eng.—died March 14, 1915, Horsham) English illustrator, painter, and designer. The son of a portrait painter, he studied Italian Old Masters and Japanese prints. The ideas of the Pre-Raphaelites and John Ruskin inspired his early paintings. He achieved international popularity designing Art Nouveau textiles and wallpapers but is chiefly known for his illustrations of children's books. In 1894 he worked with William Morris on The Story of the Glittering Plain, a book printed in the style of 16th-century German and Italian woodcuts. He belonged to the Art Workers' Guild, and in 1888 he founded the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society. Seealso Arts and Crafts Movement.

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(born Oct. 19, 1871, Prairie du Chien, Wis., U.S.—died Oct. 1, 1945, Franklin, N.H.) U.S. neurologist and physiologist. He was the first to use X rays in physiological studies. He also investigated hemorrhagic and traumatic shock during World War I and worked on methods of blood storage. He researched the emergency functions of the sympathetic nervous system and homeostasis and sympathin, an epinephrine-like substance released by certain neurons. With Philip Bard he developed the Cannon-Bard theory, which proposed that emotional and physiological responses to external situations arise simultaneously and that both prepare the body to deal with the situation.

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orig. Bruno Walter Schlesinger

(born Sept. 15, 1876, Berlin, Ger.—died Feb. 17, 1962, Beverly Hills, Calif., U.S.) German-born U.S. conductor. An associate of Gustav Mahler, he was long a faithful proponent and interpreter of Mahler's music, giving the world premieres of Das Lied von der Erde (1911) and the Symphony No. 9 (1912). He held positions in Munich (1913–22) and at Covent Garden (1924–31), but thereafter he served more often as a guest conductor than a music director. After moving to the U.S. in 1939, he often conducted the New York Philharmonic (recording as the Columbia or CBS Symphony), the Metropolitan Opera, the Philadelphia Orchestra, and the Los Angeles Philharmonic, and he was admired for the warmth of his interpretations, primarily of the Viennese school.

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(born July 15, 1892, Berlin, Ger.—died Sept. 27?, 1940, near Port-Bou, Spain) German literary critic. Born into a prosperous Jewish family, Benjamin studied philosophy and worked as a literary critic and translator in Berlin from 1920 until 1933, when he fled to France to avoid persecution. The Nazi takeover of France led him to flee again in 1940; he committed suicide at the Spanish border on hearing that he would be turned over to the Gestapo. Posthumous publication of his essays has won him a reputation as the leading German literary critic of the first half of the 20th century; he was also one of the first serious writers about film and photography. His independence and originality are evident in the essays collected in Illuminations (1961) and Reflections (1979). His writings on art reflect his reading of Karl Marx and his friendships with Bertolt Brecht and Theodor Adorno.

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(born Jan. 14, 1904, London, Eng.—died Jan. 18, 1980, Broadchalke, Salisbury, Wiltshire) British photographer and designer. When he received his first camera at age 11, he began making portraits of his sisters. In the 1920s he became staff photographer at Vanity Fair and Vogue. In Beaton's exotic and bizarre portraits, the sitter is only one element of an overall decorative composition dominated by flamboyant backgrounds. His photographs of the siege of Britain were published in Winged Squadrons (1942). After the war he designed costumes and stage sets, including those for the movies Gigi (1958) and My Fair Lady (1964).

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Walter Bagehot, mezzotint by Norman Hirst, after a photograph.

(born Feb. 3, 1826, Langport, Somerset, Eng.—died March 24, 1877, Langport) English economist, political analyst, and journalist. While working in his uncle's bank, Bagehot wrote literary essays and economic articles that led to his involvement with The Economist. As its editor from 1860, he helped make it one of the leading business and political journals in the world. His classic The English Constitution (1867) describes how the British system of government really operates behind its facade. His other works include Physics and Politics (1872), one of the earliest attempts to apply the concept of evolution to societies, and Lombard Street (1873), a study of banking methods. His literary essays have been continually republished.

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Luis Alvarez

(born June 13, 1911, San Francisco, Calif., U.S.—died Sept. 1, 1988, Berkeley, Calif.) U.S. experimental physicist. He joined the faculty of the University of California at Berkeley in 1936, where he would remain until 1978. In 1938 he discovered that some radioactive elements decay when an orbital electron merges with the atom's nucleus, producing an element with an atomic number smaller by one, a form of beta decay. In 1939 he and Felix Bloch (1905–83) made the first measurement of the magnetic moment of the neutron. During World War II he developed a radar guidance system for landing aircraft and participated in the Manhattan Project to develop the atomic bomb. He later helped construct the first proton linear accelerator and constructed the liquid hydrogen bubble chamber. With his son, the geologist Walter Alvarez (b. 1940), he helped develop the theory that links the dinosaurs' extinction with a giant asteroid or comet impact. For work that included the discovery of many subatomic particles, he received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1968.

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Arthur (Walter's Field) Aerodrome, , is located east of Arthur, Ontario, Canada.

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