Walter

Walter

[vahl-ter for 1; wawl-ter for 2, 3]
Cronkite, Walter (Walter Leland Cronkite, Jr.), 1916-2009, American news broadcaster, b. St. Joseph, Mo. He left (1935) the Univ. of Texas to write for the Houston Press and later for other Scripps-Howard newspapers and to work in radio. After joining the United Press wire service in 1939 he served as a World War II correspondent (1942-45) and was a reporter at the Nuremberg trials and in Moscow (1946-48). He then left print journalism to again work in radio broadcasting, and in 1950 he turned to the new medium of television, joining the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS), where he covered (1952) the first televised presidential nominating conventions. A decade later he was named managing editor and anchor of the "The CBS Evening News with Walter Cronkite," which became American television's dominant evening news program. Calm and authoritative, he became a national institution, and in 1973 was voted America's most trusted public figure. He was especially known for his coverage of such events as the 1968 Democratic convention; the Vietnam War; the assassinations of President John F. Kennedy, Robert F. Kennedy, and Martin Luther King, Jr.; the Watergate affair, and the accomplishments of the American space program. In 1981 he stepped down as news anchor and became a special correspondent for CBS News; he subsequently made several documentaries and also did programs for other networks. His books include Challenges of Change (1971) and a memoir (1996).
Piston, Walter, 1894-1976, American composer and teacher, b. Rockland, Maine. Piston studied at Harvard and with Nadia Boulanger in Paris; he joined the faculty of Harvard in 1926. He became a Guggenheim Fellow in 1934. Piston was a neoclassicist composer, using traditional forms with sure technique and intellectual style. His works often incorporate masterful counterpoint and employ complex jazz rhythms. Piston's compositions include symphonies, suites for orchestra, a concertino for piano and orchestra, a violin concerto, a viola concerto, a toccata and a concerto for orchestra, a ballet, and string quartets and other chamber music. He is the author of Principles of Harmonic Analysis (1933), Harmony (1941, rev. ed. 1962), Counterpoint (1947), and Orchestration (1955).
Map or Mapes, Walter, c.1140-c.1210, English author, b. Wales. A favorite of Henry II, he traveled with the king and became archdeacon of Oxford. The one work indubitably his, De nugis curialium [courtiers' trifles], is a Latin prose collection of legends, tales, gossip, and anecdotes. Shrewd, witty, and satirical, the work shows Map as a wit and a man of the world, familiar with court life and public affairs. That he was the author of one or more extant Arthurian romances and of some surviving Goliardic songs is no longer accepted by scholars.
Mapes, Walter: see Map, Walter.
Hilton, Walter, d. 1396, English religious writer, an Austin canon of Thurgarton, Nottinghamshire. His spiritual treatise The Scale of Perfection (ed. by Evelyn Underhill, 1923) is a general manual for holy living. Although it was addressed to a Carthusian recluse, it became popular among English laymen before the Reformation. Hilton also composed a shorter Treatise Written to a Devout Man. His mysticism, typically English, resembles that of Richard Rolle of Hampole.

See studies by J. E. Milosh (1966) and P. Hodgson (rev. ed. 1967).

Walter, Bruno, 1876-1962, German-American conductor, b. Berlin as Bruno Walter Schlesinger. Walter studied at the Stern Conservatory in Berlin. After he had conducted in several German cities, Gustav Mahler appointed him (1901) assistant conductor of the Vienna State Opera, where he remained until 1912. Walter was musical director of the Munich Opera (1912-22) and of the Municipal Opera, Berlin (1925-29), and appeared at Covent Garden and the Salzburg Festival. He made his American debut in 1923. While conductor of the Gewandhaus Concerts in Leipzig (1929-33), he was forced by the Nazis to leave Germany. He returned to the Vienna Opera in 1935 but left in 1938, when the Nazis took over Austria. Walter became a permanent resident of the United States in 1939. He conducted the Metropolitan Opera, the NBC Symphony, the New York Philharmonic, and other American ensembles, being permanent conductor of the New York Philharmonic from 1947 to 1949. His performances had technical accuracy, controlled balance and inner details, expressive phrasing, rhetorical emphasis, and contrasting power and lyricism. Walter was renowned as an interpreter of the German and Austrian classics and was a friend and champion of Mahler. He wrote Gustav Mahler (tr. 1941), an autobiography, Theme and Variations (1946), and Of Music and Music-Making (1961).
Walter, Hubert, d. 1205, English archbishop and statesman. He was clerk to his uncle, Ranulf de Glanvill, and in 1186 he was made dean of York. In 1189 he was appointed bishop of Salisbury, and he accompanied Richard I on crusade in 1190. He returned to England in 1193 to be made archbishop of Canterbury and justiciar of the realm at the instigation of the now captive Richard. He was responsible for raising Richard's ransom and forestalling a rebellion planned by John (later King John). After Richard again departed (1194), Hubert was virtual ruler of England. Despite his manifest avarice, he was responsible for tax reforms and important administrative reforms in town and county government. In 1196, Walter caused the Church of St. Mary-le-Bow to be set afire in order to drive out the leader of the revolting London artisans, William FitzOsbert, who had taken sanctuary there. This and other unclerical actions led the pope to demand Walter's resignation from secular office in 1198. However, upon the accession (1199) of John he became chancellor and continued to wield enormous influence. He died shortly after frustrating the king's plan for another French campaign.

See biography by C. R. Young (1968).

Walter, Lucy, 1630?-1658, mistress (1648-50) of Charles II of England during his exile in Holland and France. She was the mother by him of James Scott, duke of Monmouth, whom the Whigs supported as heir to the throne in their attempt to exclude James, duke of York (later James II), from the succession. It was rumored at that time that Charles had actually married Lucy and that proof of the marriage was contained in a mysterious black box. Charles always denied the report. Lucy herself was a courtesan before and after her connection with Charles. She was arrested (1656) in London as a spy but was released and sent abroad. She died in Paris.
Walter, Thomas Ustick, 1804-87, American architect, b. Philadelphia. In 1819 he entered the office of William Strickland in Philadelphia as a student. In 1830 he began practice, the county prison (1831) at Moyamensing, Philadelphia co., being his first important work. The main building of Girard College in Philadelphia, which he designed in 1833 and completed in 1847, was one of the most ambitious works of the classic revival. In 1851, Walter was appointed to design extensions for the Capitol at Washington, D.C., which had remained unchanged since the completion of Bulfinch's plans in 1830. Holding the post of government architect until 1865, Walter added the wings for the Senate and House of Representatives, as well as the soaring central dome of cast iron, replacing Bulfinch's low dome, and rebuilt the west front. At Washington, D.C., Walter also designed the interior of the Library of Congress and built extensions for the Post Office, the Patent Office, and the Treasury. For the Venezuelan government he designed a breakwater at La Guaira. One of the original organizers of the American Institute of Architects in 1857, he held its presidency from 1867 until his death.
Friedlaender, Walter, 1873-1966, American art historian, b. Germany. Friedlaender pursued a distinguished academic career in Germany until 1934 and afterward taught at New York Univ. His best-known works on 16th- and 17th-century art include Caravaggio Studies (1955), his edition of The Drawings of Nicolas Poussin (3 vol., 1939-55), and Mannerism and Anti-Mannerism in Italian Painting (1957), all basic works in their fields. Friedlaender's David to Delacroix (tr. 1952) is a broad and important survey in the study of 19th-century art. His publications in German include studies on 16th-century architecture at the Vatican (1912) and on Claude Lorrain (1921).
Gropius, Walter, 1883-1969, German-American architect, one of the leaders of modern functional architecture. In Germany his Fagus factory buildings (1910-11) at Alfeld, with their glass walls, metal spandrels, and discerning use of purely industrial features, were among the most advanced works in Europe. After World War I, Gropius became (1918) director of the Weimar School of Art, reorganizing it as the Bauhaus. It was moved in 1925 to Dessau. The complete set of new buildings for it, which Gropius designed (1926), remains one of his finest achievements. He built the Staattheater at Jena (1923), some experimental houses at Stuttgart (1927), and designed residences, workers' dwellings, and industrial buildings. Driven out by the Nazis, he practiced (1934-37) in London with Maxwell Fry and in 1937 emigrated to America, where he headed the school of architecture at Harvard until 1952. His influence on the dissemination of functional architectural theory and the rise of the International style was immense. Practicing his principles of cooperative design, Gropius worked with a group of young architects on the design of the Harvard graduate center. He continued his architectural activity with this group, the Architects Collaborative (TAC), in such works as the U.S. embassy at Athens, the Univ. of Baghdad (1961), and the Grand Central City building, New York City (1963). His writings include The New Architecture and the Bauhaus (tr. 1935) and Scope of World Architecture (1955).

See studies by S. Giedion (1954), J. M. Fitch (1960), and M. Franciscono (1971).

Mosley, Walter, 1952-, African-American author, b. Los Angeles. He was a computer programmer until his first novel, the bestselling mystery Devil in a Blue Dress (1990; film, 1995), was published. A noirish tale of the search for a missing blonde in a seedy, corrupt 1948 Los Angeles, it introduces Mosley's smart, decent, and streetwise black detective, Ezekiel "Easy" Rawlins, a World War II veteran with a jaundiced view of the racist, money-fueled justice system. Mosely's subsequent mysteries move Rawlins forward in time; they include A Red Death (1991), Black Betty (1994), the short stories of Six Easy Pieces (2003), Little Scarlet (2004), and Cinnamon Kiss (2005). A versatile and prolific author, Mosley has written other mysteries, e.g., Fearless Jones (2001); literary fiction, e.g., RL's Dream (1995) and Fortunate Son (2006); science fiction, e.g. Blue Light (1998) and Futureland (2001); and nonfiction, e.g., Workin' on the Chain Gang (2000) and Life Out of Context (2006).

See C. E. Wilson, Jr., Walter Mosley: A Critical Companion (2003).

Rauschenbusch, Walter, 1861-1918, American clergyman, b. Rochester, N.Y. In 1886 he was ordained and began work among German immigrants as pastor of the Second German Baptist Church in New York City. He studied (1891-92) economics and theology at the Univ. of Berlin and industrial relations in England, where he became acquainted with the Fabian Society. In 1902 he was appointed professor of church history at Rochester Theological Seminary. He was a leading figure in the Social Gospel movement, which sought to rectify economic and social injustice. His writings include Christianity and the Social Crisis (1907), Christianizing the Social Order (1912), The Social Principles of Jesus (1916), and A Theology for the Social Gospel (1917).
Reed, Walter, 1851-1902, American army surgeon, b. Gloucester co., Va. In 1900 he was sent to Havana as head of an army commission to investigate an outbreak of yellow fever among American soldiers. Following the earlier suggestion by C. J. Finlay that the disease was transmitted by a mosquito vector rather than by direct contact, Reed and his companions used human volunteers under controlled experimental conditions to prove this conclusively. In 1901 they published their findings that yellow fever was caused by a virus borne by the Stegomyia fasciata mosquito (later designated as Aëdes aegypti).

See studies by H. A. Kelly (3d ed. 1923), A. E. Truby (1943), and L. N. Wood (1943).

Simons, Walter, 1861-1937, German jurist and statesman. He served (1919) as commissioner general to the German delegation at Versailles, but resigned in opposition to the signing of the peace treaty. He later served as foreign minister (1920-21), president of the German supreme court (1922-29), and acting president of the republic (Mar.-May, 1925). He later taught at the Univ. of Leipzig. An outstanding authority on international law, Simons wrote several works, notably The Evolution of International Public Law in Europe since Grotius (1931).
Ritz, Walter, 1878-1909, Swiss physicist. He taught at the universities of Zürich and Göttingen. Ritz's combination principle, confirmed by later research, stated that the frequencies of spectral lines could be expressed as differences between a relatively small number of "terms," later identified by Niels Bohr, a Danish physicist, as the permissible energy levels of the radiating atoms. Ritz also developed important theories of radiation, magnetism, and electrodynamics.
Scheel, Walter, 1919-, German political leader, president of West Germany (1974-79). After serving in World War II, Scheel became interested in politics and joined the Free Democrats, a liberal party. In 1953 he entered the Bundestag, or lower house of parliament, and he continued to be reelected. Late in 1967 he became chairman of the Free Democrats. When the Social Democrat-Free Democrat coalition government was formed in 1969 by Chancellor Willy Brandt, Scheel became foreign minister and vice chancellor. As foreign minister he helped improve relations with East Germany and the Soviet Union. He later (1974-79) served as President, a largely ceremonial office.
Scott, Walter, 1867-1938, Canadian journalist and political leader, b. Ontario. A newspaper editor and publisher, he became (1900) a member of the House of Commons from Assiniboia West and was instrumental in securing the creation of the provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta. An outstanding Liberal, he served as premier of Saskatchewan from 1905 until his retirement in 1916. He also acted as president of the council and minister of education.
Clark, Walter, 1846-1924, American jurist, b. Halifax co., N.C., grad. Univ. of North Carolina (A.B., 1864; A.M., 1867). He entered the Confederate army at 15 and was commended for gallantry in action at Antietam and Fredericksburg. Clark was appointed (1885) judge of the superior court and elected (1889) to the supreme court of North Carolina, where he served until his death. He gained a national reputation for his independent decisions and supported many progressive causes in addresses and articles. Clark prepared an Annotated Code of Civil Procedure, annotated 164 volumes of Supreme Court Reports, edited 16 volumes of the State Records of North Carolina, and did other writing and translating.

See his Papers (ed. by A. L. Brooks and H. T. Lefler, 2 vol., 1948-51); biography by A. L. Brooks (1944).

Clarke, Walter, c.1638-1714, colonial governor of Rhode Island, b. Newport, R.I. He was deputy governor (1679-86, 1700-1714) and was three times governor (1676-77, 1686, 1696-98) of Rhode Island. He is chiefly remembered for his refusal to surrender the Rhode Island charter upon the demand of Sir Edmund Andros.
Benjamin, Walter, 1892-1940, German essayist and critic. He is known for his synthesis of eccentric Marxist theory and Jewish messianism. In particular, his essays on Charles Baudelaire and Franz Kafka as well as his speculation on symbolism, allegory, and the function of art in a mechanical age have profoundly affected contemporary criticism. Benjamin was influenced by his close friendship with the historian of Jewish mysticism Gershom Gerhard Scholem. In 1933, he moved to France because of the rise of the Nazis. When the Nazis invaded France, he fled to Spain, was denied entry, and committed suicide.

Bibliography

See collections of his essays edited by H. Arendt (1968, 1978); his Moscow Diary (1986); The Correspondence of Walter Benjamin, 1910-1940 (1966, tr. 1994) edited by Manfred R. and Evelyn M. Jacobson; Walter Benjamin: The Story of a Friendship (1981) by G. Scholem; studies by R. Wolin (1982), S. Handelman (1991), and B. Witte (1991); essays by G. Scholem (1965, 1981).

Gieseking, Walter, 1895-1956, German pianist, b. Lyons, France, grad. Hanover Municipal Conservatory, 1916. He began touring Europe in 1920 and made his American debut in 1926. A brilliant pianist with a wide repertoire, he especially excelled in performing the music of Debussy. In 1939 he returned to Germany, eventually being cleared of the charge of Nazi collaboration.
Gilbert, Walter, 1932-, American molecular biologist, b. Boston, Ph.D. Cambridge, 1957. In 1968 he became a professor of biophysics at Harvard, where he had taught since 1959. He helped formulate a method for determining the sequence of bases in nucleic acids (RNA and DNA) that made it possible to manufacture genetic material in the laboratory. For his role in this work, he shared the 1980 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Frederick Sanger and Paul Berg.
Heller, Walter, 1915-87, American economist, b. Buffalo, N.Y., grad. Oberlin College (A.B., 1935), Univ. of Wisconsin (M.A. 1938, Ph.D. 1941). He worked for the U.S. Treasury before joining the Univ. of Minnesota faculty in 1946 as a professor of economics. After service as a consultant to the United Nations (1952-60) and to the state of Minnesota (1955-60), he was chairman (1961-64) of the Council of Economic Advisers under President John F. Kennedy. He left the council in 1964 but continued to serve as a consultant to President Lyndon B. Johnson until 1969. Heller advocated deficit spending to spur economic growth, and federal revenue sharing with the states. Heller became a Regent's Professor at the Univ. of Minnesota in 1967; he retired in 1986. His writings include Monetary vs. Fiscal Policy (1969; with Milton Friedman) and The Economy (1976).
de la Mare, Walter, 1873-1956, English poet and novelist. For many years he worked in the accounting department of the Anglo-American Oil Company. Much of his verse and prose shows delight in imaginative excursions into the shadowed world between the real and the unreal. Included among his books of poetry are Songs of Childhood (1902), The Listeners (1912), Peacock Pie (1913), Poems for Children (1930), and The Fleeting and Other Poems (1933). His fiction includes Henry Brocken (1904), The Return (1910), Memoirs of a Midget (1921), and On the Edge (1930), a collection of somewhat macabre short stories.

See J. Atkins, Walter de la Mare: An Exploration (1975); D. Cecil, Walter de la Mare (1978).

Ulbricht, Walter, 1893-1973, Communist leader in the German Democratic Republic. A founder of the German Communist party, he fled Germany in 1933 and went to Moscow, where he was a member of the politburo of the exiled German Communist party. Ulbricht entered Germany with the Russian troops in 1945. In 1949 he became deputy premier of the German Democratic Republic and in 1950 was named secretary-general of the Socialist Unity party, successor to the Communist party. Leader of East Germany from that time, he became chairman of the council of state in 1960. A hard-line Communist who was opposed to normalizing relations with West Germany, Ulbricht was responsible for the building (1961) of the Berlin Wall. He strongly supported close ties with the USSR and sent troops to join the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968. In 1971 he was replaced as secretary-general by Erich Honecker.

See biography by C. Stern (tr. 1965).

Hagen, Walter, 1892-1969, American golfer, b. Rochester, N.Y. Hagen won the U.S. Open championship in 1914 and again in 1919; he took the British Open title in 1922, 1924, 1928, and 1929. "The Haig," as he was known to his admirers, also won the U.S. Professional Golfers Association championship five times (1921, 1924-27), the Australian, Canadian, French, and Belgian open tournaments, and many other titles of lesser importance. He played on five Ryder Cup teams.
Hampden, Walter, 1879-1955, American actor, b. Brooklyn, N.Y., whose original name was Walter Hampden Dougherty. He made his first appearance in London in 1901. Returning to the United States in 1907, he supported Nazimova in an Ibsen series and later appeared in Kennedy's Servant in the House and in Shakespearean drama. In 1923 he was first seen as Cyrano de Bergerac, a role that he often repeated. After assuming management of the Colonial Theatre, he renamed it Hampden's and appeared there (1925-30) with his own company. A revered figure of the American theater, Hampden was president of the Players' Club for 27 years.
Butler, Walter, 1752?-1781, Loyalist officer in the American Revolution, b. New York State; son of John Butler. He was an officer in his father's Loyalist troop, Butler's Rangers. He was captured (1777) by the patriots and sentenced to death, but the sentence was commuted. He escaped and in 1778 led the Rangers in a raid. This ended with the Cherry Valley massacre, for which his Native American commander, Joseph Brant, blamed Butler. Walter Butler was killed in a skirmish with patriot troops under Marinus Willet in the Mohawk valley.

See H. Swiggett, War out of Niagara (1933, repr. 1963).

Crane, Walter, 1845-1915, English designer, illustrator, and painter. As a painter he is grouped with the later Pre-Raphaelites, but he is better known for his illustrations of the works of Spenser and of Hawthorne's Wonder Book and Grimm's Fairy Tales. Seeking with William Morris to ally art with everyday life, he designed textiles, glass windows, tapestries, and house decorations. Crane's interest in socialism is expressed in his cartoons for Commonweal and Justice. In 1888 he founded the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society of London.

See his memoirs, An Artist's Reminiscences (1907); G. Smith, ed., Walter Crane, 1845-1915 (1989).

Colton, Walter, 1797-1851, American editor, writer, and clergyman, b. Rutland co., Vt. He became a naval chaplain in 1831. His books Ship and Shore (1835), A Visit to Constantinople and Athens (1836), and Deck and Port (1850) are based upon his naval experiences. In 1846 he was appointed chief judge of Monterey, Calif., and founded the Californian, California's first newspaper. Colton's book Three Years in California (1850) is an excellent historical account of this period.
Lippmann, Walter, 1889-1974, American essayist and editor, b. New York City. He was associate editor of the New Republic in its early days (1914-17), but at the outbreak of World War I he left to become Assistant Secretary of War, later helping to prepare data for the peace conference. From 1921 to 1931 he was on the editorial staff of the New York World, serving as editor the last two years. In 1931 he began writing for the New York Herald Tribune a highly influential syndicated column, which moved to the Washington Post in 1962. He ceased writing a regular newspaper column in 1967. Lippmann's early books, written when he was a champion of liberalism, include A Preface to Politics (1913), Public Opinion (1922), and A Preface to Morals (1929). An early supporter of Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal, Lippmann became disillusioned and condemned collectivism in The Good Society (1937). His political stance became one of moderate detachment, and he won distinction as a farsighted and incisive analyst of foreign policy. A special Pulitzer Prize citation (1958) praised his powers of news analysis, which he demonstrated in U.S. War Aims (1944), The Cold War (1947), Isolation and Alliances (1952), and Western Unity and the Common Market (1962).

See M. W. Childs and J. B. Reston, ed., Walter Lippmann and His Times (1959); E. W. Weeks, ed., Conversations with Walter Lippmann (1965); R. Steel, Walter Lippmann and the American Century (1980).

Kohn, Walter, 1923-, American physicist, b. Vienna, Austria, Ph.D. Harvard, 1948. Kohn taught at Carnegie Institute of Technology from 1950 to 1960 and at the Univ. of California, San Diego, from 1960 to 1979. He has been a professor at the Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, since 1979. In 1998 Kohn received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry with John Pople for his development of the density-functional theory, a method for calculating the properties of molecules that was computationally simpler than previous techniques. With the advent of supercomputers, his work has become a critical tool in the field of electronic materials science.
Baade, Walter, 1893-1960, German-born American astronomer. From 1919 to 1931 he was on the staff of the Hamburg observatory; from 1931 to 1958, at the Mt. Wilson observatory. Baade studied the Andromeda Galaxy, M31, and other spiral galaxies and presented evidence for the existence of two different stellar populations, the younger Population I, and the older Population II. From these data he inferred that similar spiral patterns could be found in the Milky Way. Perhaps his most important contribution came in 1952 from observations of Cepheid variables in nearby galaxies through the 200-in. reflecting telescope at the Palomar Observatory; he calculated that it was necessary to double the cosmic-distance scale, i.e., the distances between external galaxies and the Milky Way. With Fritz Zwicky and Rudolf Minkowski he distinguished two types of supernova based on their spectra and on their maximum absolute magnitudes. In 1949 he discovered Icarus, an asteroid whose orbit takes it close to Earth.

See W. Baade, Evolution of Stars and Galaxies (1963).

Bagehot, Walter, 1826-77, English social scientist. After working in his father's banking firm, he edited (1860-77) the Economist (which had been founded by his father-in-law) and helped establish its high reputation as a financial journal. From these activities came his noted study of the English banking system, Lombard Street (1873). Bagehot's classic English Constitution (1864) distinguished between the effective institutions of government and those, like the House of Lords, that had entered decay. His other important books include Literary Studies (1879) and Economic Studies (1880). In Physics and Politics (1875) he made a pioneer analysis of the interrelationship between the natural and the social sciences. He believed that investments expanded or contracted according to the mood of the market. Bagehot was also a noted literary critic of his day.

See his collected works (10 vol., 1915); biography by W. Irvine (1939, repr. 1970); studies by A. Buchan (1960) and N. St. John-Stervas (1963).

Arthur (Walter's Field) Aerodrome, , is located east of Arthur, Ontario, Canada.

References

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