Voiced retroflex plosive

The voiced retroflex plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is , and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is d`. The IPA symbol is a lowercase letter d with a rightward-pointing tail protruding from the lower right of the letter. Like all the retroflex consonants, the IPA symbol is formed by adding a rightward pointing hook extending from the bottom of the symbol used for the equivalent alveolar consonant, in this case the voiced alveolar plosive which has the symbol d. Compare d and ɖ. Many Indian languages, such as Hindi, have a two-way contrast between aspirated and plain [ɖ].


Features of the voiced retroflex plosive:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Badaga example needed -- --
Bengali ডিম [ɖim] 'egg'
English Indian dialects dine 'dine' Corresponds to /d/ in other dialects. See English phonology
Gujarati example needed -- --
Hindi डेढ़ [ɖeɽʰ] 'one and a half' See Hindi-Urdu phonology
Hungarian ad 'he/she gives' Some dialects. See Hungarian phonology
Javanese example needed/. -- --
Kannada ಅಧಸು [ʌɖʌsu] 'to join'
Malayalam പാണ്ഡവര് [ˈpäːɳˌɖäʋər] 'Pandavas'
Marathi example needed -- --
Nepali example needed -- --
Nihali 'one'
Norwegian varde 'beacon' See Norwegian phonology
Pashto ړﻙ [ɖək] 'full'
Punjabi ਮੁੰਡਾ [mʊɳɖa] 'boy'
Sardinian cherveddu [kerˈvɛɖːu] 'brain'
Sicilian beddu [ˈbɛɖːu] 'handsome'
Sindhi example needed -- --
Swedish nord [nuːɖ] 'north' See Swedish phonology
Tamil வண்டி [ʋəɳɖi] 'cart' Allophone of /ʈ/. See Tamil phonology
Telugu అఢరు [ʌɖʌru] 'to arise'
Toda --
Urdu ڈالنا [ɖälnä] 'to put' See Hindi-Urdu phonology
Yanyuwa --



  • Peter Ladefoged and Ian Maddieson, The Sounds of the World's Languages. Blackwell Publishers, 1996. ISBN 0-631-19815-6
  • Colin P. Masica, The Indo-Aryan Languages. Cambridge University Press, 1991. ISBN 0-521-29944-6

See also

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