(Владикавка́з, vladʲikaf'kas; Дзæуджыхъæу, (Dzæudjyqæu
) (means «Dzaug's settlement») is the capital city
of the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania
. It is situated in the south-east of the republic at the foothills of the Caucasus
mountains, situated on the Terek River
. Its population mostly consists of Ossetians
. Population: Vladikavkaz is one of the most populous cities in the northern Caucasus
The city is an industrial and transportation center. Manufactures include processed zinc and lead, machinery, chemicals, clothing, and food products.
The city was founded in 1784 as a fortress during the Russian
conquest of the Caucasus and was for many years the main Russian military base in the region. The Georgian Military Highway
, crossing the mountains, was constructed in 1799 to link the city with Georgia
to the south, and in 1875 a railway was built to connect it to Rostov-on-Don
. Vladikavkaz has become an important industrial centre for the region, with smelting, refining, chemicals and manufacturing industries.
From 1931 to 1944 and from 1954 to 1990 its name was Ordzhonikidze (Орджоники́дзе) (after Sergo Ordzhonikidze, a Georgian Bolshevik), and from 1944 to 1954 it was called Dzaudzhikau (Дзауджика́у). Vladikavkaz resumed its old name, which means "Ruler of the Caucasus", in 1990, shortly before the disintegration of the Soviet Union.
Vladikavkaz was fought over in both the Russian Civil War and Second World War. In February 1919, the anti-Communist Volunteer Army under General Anton Ivanovich Denikin seized the city, before being expelled by the Red Army in March 1920. In November 1942, the forces of Nazi Germany tried unsuccessfully to seize the city but were repelled.
The city is served by the bus network (marshrutkas
). There are also tram
(since the beginning of the 20th century) and trolleybus
networks. There is railway
) in Vladikavkaz.
The city is served by the Airport Vladikavkaz located from the city.
The Georgian Military Road, which is a part of European route E117, starts in Vladikavkaz and it connects the city with Transcaucasia.
FC Alania Vladikavkaz
is a football
club based in Vladikavkaz, who won the Russian Premier League
Ethnic groups in the city (2002 data):
The city's population has Eastern Orthodox Christians
and adherents of Islam
In Vladikavkaz, there is a 198 metres tall guyed TV mast built in 1961, which has 6 crossbars with gangways in 2 levels running from the mast structure to the guys.