Venue is a concept distinct from jurisdiction, which focuses on the authority of a court to hear a particular case. However, unlike personal jurisdiction, there is no constitutional requirement for proper venue in order to have a valid judgment.
The general venue statute for United States federal courts is with special rules listed in §§ 1392-1413. Venue can be transferred from one federal district to another (). A case can also be removed from a state court to a federal court. Finally, a case may be dismissed because its venue is harshly "unfair" to one or more parties under a doctrine called forum non conveniens, often used in cases where the events took place in a foreign country such as Piper Aircraft Co. v. Reyno, .
Defendants can waive venue at the time of trial (Neirbo Co. v. Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp., ) or before a claim even arises through contract, such as through a forum selection clause (Carnival Cruise Lines, Inc. v. Shute, ).