This finding has been corroborated by dozens of studies. In one straightforward experiment, all other things being equal, participants assigned a higher probability to picking a card that had a smiling face on its reverse side than one which had a frowning face.
The outcome of valence effects may be called wishful thinking. However, in certain situations, the positive outcome bias may actually alter the event in some way so that it indeed results in a positive outcome. Examples of this have been seen to occur in war battles, when generals have often roused up their soldiers to a point where they are able to emerge victorious in the fought battle.
Findings from Erasmus University, Institute of Psychology broaden understanding of pain and central nervous system.(Report)
Jun 28, 2010; Research findings, 'The late positive potential and explicit versus implicit processing of facial valence,' are discussed in a...