Ussuriysk

Ussuriysk

Ussuriysk, city (1989 pop. 158,000), Maritime Territory, Russian Far East, on the Suyfun River. It is a coal-mining center and a Trans-Siberian RR junction. A direct rail line to the Manchurian city of Harbin runs from Ussuriysk. Industries include food processing and clothing manufacture. The city was called Nikolsk-Ussuriski until 1935 and Voroshilov until 1957.
Ussuriysk (Уссури́йск) is a city in Primorsky Krai, Russia, situated in the middle of a fertile valley at the junction of three rivers at . The city was founded in 1866 as Nikolskoye settlement, named so after tsar Nicholas I, then as Nikolsk-Ussiriysky town, but was changed to Voroshilov in 1935 after Kliment Voroshilov. With Nikita Khrushchev's ascent to power after Stalin's death, Voroshilov was forced to retire and the city's name was changed to Ussuriysk after the nearby Ussuri river in 1957.

Ussuriysk is very green because of many trees (such as poplars, elms, and jasmine, have been transplanted here from the taiga) and ranked third after Arsenyev and Vladivostok.

  • Founded in 1866
  • Population: 155,800 (2003 est.); 157,759 (2002 Census)
  • Highway distance to Vladivostok: 111 km

History

From the middle of the ninth century, the kingdom of Balhae occupied Primorsky Krai, consisting of the Nanai, the Udege, the Evenks, the Mohe and other descendants of the Tungus-speaking people. Prior to this occupation, Ussuriysk and its neighbourhood were settled by Yulou Mohe (Hangul : 우루말갈 Hanja/Hanzi : 虞婁靺鞨 pinyin : Yúlóu Mòhé) tribes who were incorporated to Balhae Kingdom under King Seon's reign (818-830). During the Balhae kingdom period, a town called Hwaju (Hangul :화주, Hanja : 華州) was founded which was also the administrative centre of Solbin Prefecture (Hangul : 솔빈부 Hanja : 率賓府 Russian : Шуайбинь).

In 1866 Nikolskoye settlement was founded on the area of today's Ussuriysk. Due to its advantageous geographic location at the crossing of the transportation lines of South Primorye, the village has experienced rapid growth since the 1870s, turning into a trade center. The role of the village increased after the Ussuriysk railroad was constructed. In 1898 Nikolskoye village became a town Nikolsk-Ussuriysky. By the beginning of the 20th century the town's population totaled 15,000 people, and the annual turnover of its trade enterprises was equal to 3 million rubles. After the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905 Nikolsk-Ussuriysky became one of the most important commercial and economic centers of the Russian Far East. In 1913 the city ranked fourth after Vladivostok, Blagoveshchensk, and Khabarovsk in terms of population. Enterprises were established processing agricultural products such as mills, dairies, soap-boiling plants and tanneries, as well as macaroni and sausage factories and breweries. Brick factories, quarries and saw-mills also appeared in the city.

The central part of the city began to be built up with 2- and 3-store masonry buildings. In 1914 there were 14 educational institutions, a theater, a circus, and 3 movie-theaters in Nikolsk-Ussuriysky. After the Revolution of 1917 Ussuriysk's economy experienced a rapid growth. The city specialized in processing agricultural products. Until the 1980s the city ranked second in the Krai in population, having only recently yielded to Nakhodka. Ussuriysk is still second only to Vladivostok as a theatrical and higher-educational center (it is home to the Pedagogical and Agricultural Institutes, and the Higher Military School).

Business and industry

The city's industry is represented by 28 enterprises, including 12 of the food industry, 2 of light industry, 6 of metal industry, and 4 of construction industry. Ussuriysk has always specialized in the production of consumer goods. That is why at present it is in a more favorable situation as compared with other large cities of Primorye where enterprises of war industry prevailed. The largest enterprises of light industry are Primorsky Sakhar (which provides the Russian Far East with sugar, producing 160,000 tonnes per year), Dalsoya (which produces vegetable oil, margarine, and soap), Ussuriysky Balsam (24 kinds of liqueur and vodka products, and balsams made of a blend of dozens of herbs). Five articles of Ussuriysky Balsam were given diplomas of the first and the second degrees at all-Russian competition of alcohol products.

One more economic feature of Ussuriysk is its wholesale trade. There are approximately 30 specialized and multipurpose trade bases many of which had developed contacts with foreign partners before the external economic policy was liberalized in Russia.

Among the city's other enterprises that are worth mentioning are the Grado firm which annually produces up to 600,000 pairs of footwear, and the Locomotive Repairing Plant. The annual industrial output of Ussuriysk equals 8% of Krai's production. Besides, the city is the crossing point of all major highways and railroads of Primorye.

Animal husbandry is well-developed in Ussuriysky District. Soybeans, buckwheat, wheat, barley, potatoes, and vegetables are grown here. Manufacture of furs is also developed in this District. Oktyabrsky JSC supplies mink fur-skins to the Russian market and abroad.

The joint Ussuriysky Administration has worked out a program of social and economic development in the city and the District. This presupposes an active exploration of the deposits of mineral sources found in the territory of the city and the district, namely, hard and brown coal, tuff, and clay. Foreign investors are welcome in the mining of these sedimentary rocks.

Theaters

The Ussuriysk Drama Theater of the Far East Military District is located at #31 Sovyetskaya St. The theater was founded in 1937 and is one of the two theaters of the Russian Army (another is the Central Theater of the Russian Army in Moscow). The theater maintains the military- patriotic tendency and realistic style.

The Ussuriysk Drama Theater is located at #33 Volodarskogo St. It was opened in 1937. The theater is of classical tendencies. Plays are staged both for adults and children. The hall can accommodate 428 people.

Sightseeing

The downtown including Lenina, Chicherina, Krasnoznamyonnaya, and Ageyeva Streets is of historic value. The city's oldest hotel (#28 Lenina St.) was constructed in 1880. #53 Lenina St. which houses the city's oldest movie-theater Grand-Illyuzion was built in 1908.

On the central square there is a monument to the Red Guards and partisans, who died in the battles at Ussuriysk in June 1918. A monument to Lenin is on the Railway Station Square.

The Intercession Church at #80A Chicherina St. was built in 1914. It is Primorsky Krai's only religious building which has been kept without any reconstruction since 1917 and used for its original purpose.

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