university

university

[yoo-nuh-vur-si-tee]

Institution of higher education, usually comprising a liberal arts and sciences college and graduate and professional schools that confer degrees in various fields. A university differs from a college in that it is usually larger, has a broader curriculum, and offers advanced degrees in addition to undergraduate degrees. The first true university was the University of Bologna, founded in the 11th century; the first in northern Europe was the University of Paris, which served as a model for the universities of Oxford, Cambridge, Heidelberg, and others. One of the first modern universities, in which secular objectivity and rationalism replaced religious orthodoxy, was the University of Halle (founded 1694 in Halle, Ger.). The liberalism of Halle was adopted by Göttingen, Berlin, and many other German universities. The German model of the university as a complex of schools and research institutes also exerted a worldwide influence. The growth of universities in the U.S., where most colleges had been established by religious denominations, was greatly spurred by the Morrill Act of 1862.

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Private university in New York City. It was established in 1886 as Yeshiva Eitz Chaim; in 1915 it merged with a Jewish theological seminary. Today the university is independent, although its curriculum emphasizes Jewish culture and history. Yeshiva consists of a liberal arts college, a college for women, a college of Hebraic studies, and the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, as well as schools of Judaic studies, Talmudic studies, business, law (the Cardozo School), social work, education, and graduate studies, among others.

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Private university in New Haven, Conn., a traditional member of the Ivy League. Founded in 1701, it is the third-oldest institution of higher learning in the U.S. Yale's initial curriculum emphasized classical studies and strict adherence to orthodox Puritanism. Medical, divinity, and law schools were added in 1810, 1822, and 1824. The geologist Benjamin Silliman (1779–1864), who taught at Yale from 1802 to 1853, did much to expand the experimental and applied sciences. Beginning in the mid 19th century, schools of architecture, art, drama, forestry, graduate studies, management, music, and nursing were organized. Yale's library, with more than 10 million volumes, is one of the largest in the U.S. Its extensive art galleries were established in 1832. The Peabody Museum of Natural History houses important collections of paleontology, archaeology, and ethnology. Yale is one of the most highly regarded schools in the nation; its graduates have included several U.S. presidents.

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Private university in Middletown, Conn. It was founded in 1831 by Methodists, who named the institution for John Wesley. Its formal ties to the Methodist church ended in 1937. Wesleyan offers 50 major fields of undergraduate and graduate study, including roughly one dozen master's and doctoral programs in music and sciences. Campus facilities include centres for African American and East Asian studies, an astronomical observatory, and the Center for Humanities and Arts.

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Private university in Lexington, Virginia, U.S. Founded as an academy in 1749, it is one of the oldest institutions of higher learning in the U.S. It is named for George Washington, who presented the academy with a gift of $50,000 in 1796, and Robert E. Lee, who served as its president from 1865 to 1870. It became coeducational in 1984. It has an undergraduate college, a law school, and a school of commerce, economics, and politics. Among its offerings are programs in engineering, environmental studies, and journalism.

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Private university in St. Louis, Mo. It was founded as a seminary in 1853 and became a university in 1857. It is a comprehensive research and teaching institution, with one of the leading medical schools in the U.S. It has a college of arts and sciences, a graduate school, and schools of architecture, business (the Olin School), engineering and applied science, fine arts, law, and social work. Research facilities include a space science centre, a centre for the study of Islamic culture and society, and an institute for the deaf.

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U.S. public university founded in Charlottesville by Thomas Jefferson. It was chartered in 1819 and opened in 1825. Jefferson designed its beautiful campus and buildings, planned the curriculum, and selected the faculty. By the time of the Civil War, the university was second only to Harvard in size of faculty and student body. It first admitted women in 1970. In addition to its college of arts and sciences, it has schools of architecture, education, engineering and applied sciences, and nursing, as well as a business school, a graduate school, and schools of law and medicine.

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Private university in Nashville, Tennessee, U.S. It was founded in 1873 and named for benefactor Cornelius Vanderbilt. Baccalaureate degrees are awarded through its college of arts and sciences, school of engineering, and school of music. Master's, doctoral, and professional degree programs are offered through these and other schools, such as Vanderbilt's graduate school, divinity school, and schools of law, management, medicine, and nursing. Research institutes include centres for the study of education and human development, public policy, and the humanities.

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U.S. public university founded in Charlottesville by Thomas Jefferson. It was chartered in 1819 and opened in 1825. Jefferson designed its beautiful campus and buildings, planned the curriculum, and selected the faculty. By the time of the Civil War, the university was second only to Harvard in size of faculty and student body. It first admitted women in 1970. In addition to its college of arts and sciences, it has schools of architecture, education, engineering and applied sciences, and nursing, as well as a business school, a graduate school, and schools of law and medicine.

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Public university in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. It was founded in 1843 and reorganized in 1853 and 1887. It comprises nine undergraduate colleges, three formerly independent but now federated universities, four affiliated theological colleges, and numerous other academic units. It offers undergraduate, graduate, and professional degrees in all major disciplines. Notable among its research units are centres for the study of medieval culture and society, religion, Russia and eastern Europe, international relations, drama, comparative literature, biomedical engineering, history of science and technology, and aerospace science.

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State-financed university in Tokyo, the largest and most prestigious university in Japan. It was founded in 1877 and modeled on Western universities. It was destroyed in the great earthquake and fire of 1923 and reorganized following World War II. Today it has faculties of agriculture, economics, education, engineering, law, letters, medicine, pharmacology, and science, as well as a college of arts and sciences and a graduate school. Among its many research units are centres for the study of molecular and cellular biology, earthquakes, solid-state physics, cosmic radiation, oceanography, and Asian culture.

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U.S. state university system with 13 campuses throughout the state. It was founded in 1883. The main campus, at Austin, is the second most populous campus in the U.S. It is a comprehensive research and teaching institution, offering about 100 undergraduate programs and about 190 graduate degree programs. There are more than 85 organized research units on campus, including centres for biomedical research, economic geology, and cognitive science. The Lyndon B. Johnson Library and Museum is located there.

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Oldest university in Scotland, founded in 1411 on the outskirts of St. Andrews. The university buildings include St. Salvator's College (1450), St. Leonard's College (1512; merged with St. Salvator's in 1747), and the University Library (1612). A third college, St. Mary's (1537), has always taught theology exclusively. The medical and dental school became independent as the University of Dundee in 1967.

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U.S. private university in Philadelphia, a traditional member of the Ivy League. Founded in 1740 as a charity school, it became an academy in 1753, with Benjamin Franklin as president of the first board of trustees. With the founding of the first medical school in North America (1765), it became a university. Today, in addition to its college of arts and sciences and its medical school, it includes a college of general studies and schools of business (the Wharton School), communication (the Annenberg School), education, engineering, fine arts, law, nursing, dentistry, veterinary medicine, and social work. Its institutes include the Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology and the Phipps Institute of Genetics and Community Diseases. The University Museum (of archaeology and ethnology) is a teaching and research organization.

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Second oldest European university (after the University of Bologna), founded circa 1170 in France. It grew out of the cathedral schools of Notre-Dame and, with papal support, soon became a great centre of Christian orthodox teaching. In the medieval period its professors included St. Bonaventure, Albertus Magnus, and Thomas Aquinas. Its most celebrated early college was the Sorbonne, founded circa 1257. The university declined somewhat under the impact of the Reformation and Counter-Reformation. With the French Revolution and Napoleon's reforms, teaching became more independent of religion and politics. By the mid-20th century the university had again become a preeminent scientific and intellectual centre. In May 1968 a Sorbonne student protest grew into a serious national crisis. This led to decentralizing reforms, the old university being replaced in 1970 by a system in Paris and its suburbs called the Universities of Paris I–XIII.

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Autonomous university at Oxford, Oxfordshire, England. It was founded in the 12th century and modeled on the University of Paris, with initial faculties of theology, law, medicine, and the liberal arts. Of the earliest colleges, University College was founded in 1249, Balliol circa 1263, and Merton in 1264. Early scholars of note include Roger Bacon, John Duns Scotus, William of Ockham, and John Wycliffe. In the Renaissance, Desiderius Erasmus and St. Thomas More helped enhance its already considerable reputation. By then faculties of physical science, political science, and other fields had been added. The first women's college, Lady Margaret Hall, was established in 1878. There are 32 other colleges and collegial institutions. Oxford houses the Bodleian Library and the Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology. Oxford University Press (1478) is the world's oldest, largest, and most famous university publisher. Oxford has been associated with many of the greatest names in British history.

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Private university in Notre Dame, near South Bend, Indiana, U.S. It was founded in 1842 and reorganized in the 1920s; it became coeducational in 1972. It is affiliated with the Roman Catholic church. It has colleges of arts and letters, science, engineering, and business administration. It also has a graduate school and a law school.

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U.S. state university with its main campus in Ann Arbor and branch campuses in Flint and Dearborn. It originated as a preparatory school in Detroit in 1817 and moved to Ann Arbor in 1837. Today it is one of the nation's leading research universities, consisting of a college of literature, science, and the arts and numerous graduate and professional schools. Special facilities include a nuclear reactor, a hospital complex, an aerospace engineering laboratory, a Great Lakes research centre, and the Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library.

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Federation of British institutions of higher learning, located primarily in London. It was established by liberals and religious dissenters in 1828, and it accepted for enrollment Roman Catholics, Jews, and other non-Anglicans. The first two colleges were University College and King's College. From 1849 a student enrolled in any university in the British Empire could be awarded a University of London degree after examination. By the early 20th century many institutions had become affiliated with the university, including Bedford College, the first British institution to grant degrees to women, and the London School of Economics and Political Science, now an internationally renowned centre for the social sciences.

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State-supported university in Leipzig, Germany, founded in 1409. In the 1500s it was a centre of Reformation thought, and in the 18th and 19th centuries it became one of Europe's leading literary and cultural centres, attracting such students as Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, and Richard Wagner. Between 1953 and 1990 it was named Karl Marx University of Leipzig.

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Public university in Glasgow, Scotland. It was founded in 1451 and reorganized in 1577. In the 18th century its faculty included such eminent figures as Adam Smith and James Black; James Watt was an assistant there. In the 19th century the faculty included Joseph Lister and William Thomson (Lord Kelvin). The university faculties represent the arts, divinity, law, medicine, science, veterinary medicine, and engineering. The rector is elected triennially by the students.

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Private university in Edinburgh, Scotland. It was founded as a college under Presbyterian auspices in 1583 and achieved university status circa 1621 after a divinity school was added. Schools of medicine and law were added in the early 18th century, and faculties of music, science, arts, social sciences, and veterinary medicine were subsequently established. The university has produced a long line of eminent cultural figures, including Sir Walter Scott, John Stuart Mill, Thomas Carlyle, Charles Darwin, David Hume, Robert Louis Stevenson, and Alexander Graham Bell.

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or Trinity College

Oldest university in Ireland, founded in 1592 by Elizabeth I and endowed by the city of Dublin. Trinity was originally intended to be the first of many constituent colleges of the university, but no others were established, and the two names became interchangeable. The full benefits of the university (degrees, fellowships, scholarships, etc.) were for many years limited to Anglicans, but in 1873 all religious requirements were eliminated. The university has faculties of arts (humanities and letters), sciences, business, economic and social studies, engineering and systems sciences, health sciences, and graduate studies. The library contains many illuminated manuscripts, including the Book of Kells.

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Independent university in Chicago, Illinois, U.S. It was founded in 1890 with an endowment from John D. Rockefeller. William Rainey Harper, its first president (1891–1906), did much to establish its reputation, and under Robert M. Hutchins (1929–51) the university came to be recognized for its broad liberal arts curriculum. The world's first department of sociology was established there in 1892 under Robert E. Park. In 1942 it was the site of the first controlled self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction, under the direction of Enrico Fermi. Other notable achievements include the development of carbon-14 dating and the isolation of plutonium. More than 70 scholars associated with the University of Chicago have been awarded Nobel Prizes in their fields. The university comprises an undergraduate college, several professional schools, and centres for advanced research, including the Oriental Institute (Middle Eastern studies), Yerkes Observatory, the Enrico Fermi Institute, and the Center for Policy Study. The university operates the Argonne National Laboratory.

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U.S. public university with campuses at Berkeley (main campus), Davis, Irvine, Los Angeles, Merced, Riverside, San Diego (La Jolla), San Francisco, Santa Barbara, and Santa Cruz. Established in 1868 in Oakland, it has become one of the largest university systems in the U.S. The Berkeley campus, which replaced the Oakland campus in 1873, remains a leader in scientific fields as well as in many other academic areas. In the 1930s researchers there produced the first cyclotron, isolated the human polio virus, and discovered several new chemical elements. The San Francisco campus, originally a medical college, joined the University of California in 1873 and remains a centre for medical research and education. The San Diego campus, founded as a marine station, became part of the university in 1912; it includes the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. The Los Angeles branch (UCLA), founded in 1919, includes schools of law, medicine, and engineering. The Santa Barbara campus, originally founded as a teachers college, joined the university system in 1944. The Davis and Riverside campuses grew out of agricultural institutes and were added in 1959. To answer a growing need for broad-based education and research, the university opened campuses at Santa Cruz and Irvine in 1965 and added the Merced campus in 2005. The University of California operates nuclear research centres at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Los Alamos National Laboratory.

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Oldest university in Europe, founded in Bologna, Italy, in 1088. It became in the 12th–13th centuries the principal centre for studies in civil and canon law, and it served as a model for the organization of universities throughout Europe. Its faculties of medicine and philosophy were formed circa 1200. The faculty of science was developed in the 17th century. In the 18th century women were admitted as students and teachers. The modern university includes faculties of law, political science, economics, letters and philosophy, natural sciences, agriculture, medicine, and engineering.

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Private university in Tuskegee, Alabama, U.S. Booker T. Washington founded the school in 1881 as a teachers' college for blacks, and it still has a predominantly African American student body. George Washington Carver conducted most of his research (1896–1943) at Tuskegee, and Frederick D. Patterson, founder of the United Negro College Fund (1944), served as the school's president (1935–53). The infamous Tuskegee syphilis study, a U.S. Public Health Service project examining the course of untreated syphilis in black men, was based there from the 1930s. Today the university comprises schools of arts and sciences, agriculture, business, education, engineering and architecture, nursing, and veterinary medicine.

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Public university in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. It was founded in 1843 and reorganized in 1853 and 1887. It comprises nine undergraduate colleges, three formerly independent but now federated universities, four affiliated theological colleges, and numerous other academic units. It offers undergraduate, graduate, and professional degrees in all major disciplines. Notable among its research units are centres for the study of medieval culture and society, religion, Russia and eastern Europe, international relations, drama, comparative literature, biomedical engineering, history of science and technology, and aerospace science.

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State-financed university in Tokyo, the largest and most prestigious university in Japan. It was founded in 1877 and modeled on Western universities. It was destroyed in the great earthquake and fire of 1923 and reorganized following World War II. Today it has faculties of agriculture, economics, education, engineering, law, letters, medicine, pharmacology, and science, as well as a college of arts and sciences and a graduate school. Among its many research units are centres for the study of molecular and cellular biology, earthquakes, solid-state physics, cosmic radiation, oceanography, and Asian culture.

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U.S. state university system with 13 campuses throughout the state. It was founded in 1883. The main campus, at Austin, is the second most populous campus in the U.S. It is a comprehensive research and teaching institution, offering about 100 undergraduate programs and about 190 graduate degree programs. There are more than 85 organized research units on campus, including centres for biomedical research, economic geology, and cognitive science. The Lyndon B. Johnson Library and Museum is located there.

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Largest university system in the U.S. Founded in 1948, it consists of university centres in Albany, Binghamton, Buffalo, and Stony Brook; colleges of arts and sciences in Brockport, Buffalo, Cortland, Fredonia, Geneseo, New Paltz, Old Westbury, Oneonta, Oswego, Plattsburgh, Potsdam, and Purchase; three medical centres (two in New York City and one in Syracuse); several two-year agricultural and technical colleges; a nonresidential continuing-education program (Empire State College); over 30 community colleges; and various other specialized units.

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Oldest university in Scotland, founded in 1411 on the outskirts of St. Andrews. The university buildings include St. Salvator's College (1450), St. Leonard's College (1512; merged with St. Salvator's in 1747), and the University Library (1612). A third college, St. Mary's (1537), has always taught theology exclusively. The medical and dental school became independent as the University of Dundee in 1967.

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Private university in Houston, Texas, U.S. It was founded in 1891 and endowed by William Marsh Rice. It has schools of humanities, social sciences, architecture, music, natural sciences, and engineering and a graduate school of administration. It offers both undergraduate and graduate degrees in numerous fields.

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formally Regents of the University of California v. Bakke

(1978) Decision of the Supreme Court of the United States that ruled unconstitutional the use of fixed quotas for minority applicants at professional schools. At issue was a state medical school's affirmative action program that, because it required a certain number of minority admissions, twice denied entrance to an otherwise qualified white candidate (Allan Bakke). Though the court outlawed quota programs on the grounds that they violated the equal-protection clause of the Constitution of the United States, it allowed colleges to use race as a factor in making college admissions decisions.

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Privately endowed university in Kingston, Ontario, Canada. It was founded in 1841 and modeled after the University of Edinburgh. It is a comprehensive research institution, offering undergraduate, graduate, and professional degrees in most major fields. Research facilities include centres for the study of international relations, industrial relations, and natural resources.

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Private university in Princeton, New Jersey, U.S., a traditional member of the Ivy League. Founded as the College of New Jersey in 1746, it is the fourth oldest university in the U.S. and one of the most prestigious. Woodrow Wilson served as university president (1902–10). In addition to an undergraduate college and a graduate school, Princeton has a school of engineering and applied science and a school of architecture and urban planning. Its Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs continues a long Princeton tradition of training government officials. The university has admitted women since 1969.

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U.S. private university in Philadelphia, a traditional member of the Ivy League. Founded in 1740 as a charity school, it became an academy in 1753, with Benjamin Franklin as president of the first board of trustees. With the founding of the first medical school in North America (1765), it became a university. Today, in addition to its college of arts and sciences and its medical school, it includes a college of general studies and schools of business (the Wharton School), communication (the Annenberg School), education, engineering, fine arts, law, nursing, dentistry, veterinary medicine, and social work. Its institutes include the Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology and the Phipps Institute of Genetics and Community Diseases. The University Museum (of archaeology and ethnology) is a teaching and research organization.

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U.S. public state system of higher education with a main campus in University Park and numerous other campuses and locations, including the Milton S. Hershey Medical Center in Hershey and the Dickinson School of Law in Carlisle. The university originated with the charter of the Farmers' High School in 1855 and was designated the commonwealth's land-grant college in 1862. It took its current name only in 1953. Research facilities include the Biotechnology Institute, the Center for Applied Behavioral Science, and the Center for Particle Science and Engineering.

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or Beijing University

One of the oldest and most important institutions of higher education in China. It was founded as Capital College in 1898 and became a university in 1911. By 1920 it had become a centre for progressive thought. During the Sino-Japanese War (1937–45) it was temporarily relocated to Yunnan province. The first disturbances of the Cultural Revolution began at Beijing University in 1966; education there ceased between 1966 and 1970. The university has since reasserted its position as China's foremost nontechnical university. It has more than three dozen colleges and academic departments and scores of research institutes.

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Second oldest European university (after the University of Bologna), founded circa 1170 in France. It grew out of the cathedral schools of Notre-Dame and, with papal support, soon became a great centre of Christian orthodox teaching. In the medieval period its professors included St. Bonaventure, Albertus Magnus, and Thomas Aquinas. Its most celebrated early college was the Sorbonne, founded circa 1257. The university declined somewhat under the impact of the Reformation and Counter-Reformation. With the French Revolution and Napoleon's reforms, teaching became more independent of religion and politics. By the mid-20th century the university had again become a preeminent scientific and intellectual centre. In May 1968 a Sorbonne student protest grew into a serious national crisis. This led to decentralizing reforms, the old university being replaced in 1970 by a system in Paris and its suburbs called the Universities of Paris I–XIII.

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Autonomous university at Oxford, Oxfordshire, England. It was founded in the 12th century and modeled on the University of Paris, with initial faculties of theology, law, medicine, and the liberal arts. Of the earliest colleges, University College was founded in 1249, Balliol circa 1263, and Merton in 1264. Early scholars of note include Roger Bacon, John Duns Scotus, William of Ockham, and John Wycliffe. In the Renaissance, Desiderius Erasmus and St. Thomas More helped enhance its already considerable reputation. By then faculties of physical science, political science, and other fields had been added. The first women's college, Lady Margaret Hall, was established in 1878. There are 32 other colleges and collegial institutions. Oxford houses the Bodleian Library and the Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology. Oxford University Press (1478) is the world's oldest, largest, and most famous university publisher. Oxford has been associated with many of the greatest names in British history.

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U.S. state university system consisting of a main campus in Columbus and branches in five other locations. It was established in 1870 as a land-grant institution. The main campus is a comprehensive research institution, with colleges of agriculture, dentistry, law, medicine, and veterinary medicine. Research facilities include a transportation research centre, a freshwater laboratory, a supercomputer centre, and a polar research centre.

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Private university in Notre Dame, near South Bend, Indiana, U.S. It was founded in 1842 and reorganized in the 1920s; it became coeducational in 1972. It is affiliated with the Roman Catholic church. It has colleges of arts and letters, science, engineering, and business administration. It also has a graduate school and a law school.

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Private university in Evanston, Illinois, U.S., founded in 1851. It is a comprehensive research institution that includes a college of arts and sciences and schools of music, education, social policy, graduate studies, law, medicine, and dentistry. It also includes the Medill School of Journalism, the McCormick School of Engineering and Applied Science, and the Kellogg Graduate School of Management. Research facilities include centres for the study of learning, urban affairs and policy, and superconductivity.

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Largest university system in the U.S. Founded in 1948, it consists of university centres in Albany, Binghamton, Buffalo, and Stony Brook; colleges of arts and sciences in Brockport, Buffalo, Cortland, Fredonia, Geneseo, New Paltz, Old Westbury, Oneonta, Oswego, Plattsburgh, Potsdam, and Purchase; three medical centres (two in New York City and one in Syracuse); several two-year agricultural and technical colleges; a nonresidential continuing-education program (Empire State College); over 30 community colleges; and various other specialized units.

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formerly New School for Social Research

Private university in New York City. It was established in 1919 as an informal centre for adult education and soon became the first American university to specialize in continuing education. In 1934 it established a graduate faculty of political and social sciences, staffed mainly by refugee academics from Nazi Germany. It also includes a liberal arts college, a graduate school of management and urban policy, the Mannes College of Music, and the Parsons School of Design.

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Mexican government-financed university in Mexico City, founded in 1551. The original university building, dating from 1584, was demolished in 1910, and the university was moved to a new campus in 1954. Between 1553 and 1867 the university was controlled by the Roman Catholic church. After 1867, independent professional schools of law, medicine, engineering, and architecture were established by the government. The university was given administrative autonomy in 1929. It offers a broad range of programs in all major academic and professional subjects.

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in full Lomonosov Moscow State University

Government-operated university in Moscow, Russia. Founded in 1755 by the linguist Mikhail Lomonosov with support from Elizabeth, empress of Russia, it is the oldest, largest, and most prestigious university in Russia. By the late 19th century it had established itself as a major centre of scientific research and scholarship. Moscow State University supports more than 350 departments, a number of research institutes and laboratories, several observatories, and various affiliated museums. Its library ranks among the largest in Russia (9 million volumes).

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U.S. state university with its main campus in Ann Arbor and branch campuses in Flint and Dearborn. It originated as a preparatory school in Detroit in 1817 and moved to Ann Arbor in 1837. Today it is one of the nation's leading research universities, consisting of a college of literature, science, and the arts and numerous graduate and professional schools. Special facilities include a nuclear reactor, a hospital complex, an aerospace engineering laboratory, a Great Lakes research centre, and the Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library.

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Mexican government-financed university in Mexico City, founded in 1551. The original university building, dating from 1584, was demolished in 1910, and the university was moved to a new campus in 1954. Between 1553 and 1867 the university was controlled by the Roman Catholic church. After 1867, independent professional schools of law, medicine, engineering, and architecture were established by the government. The university was given administrative autonomy in 1929. It offers a broad range of programs in all major academic and professional subjects.

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Privately endowed but state-supported university in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. It was founded in 1821 through a gift left by the Scottish-born Canadian merchant James McGill (1744–1813). It is internationally known for its work in chemistry, medicine, and biology. In addition, it has faculties of agricultural and environmental sciences, arts, dentistry, education, engineering, law, management, music, religious studies, and science. The language of instruction is English, though students may write examinations in French.

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Federation of British institutions of higher learning, located primarily in London. It was established by liberals and religious dissenters in 1828, and it accepted for enrollment Roman Catholics, Jews, and other non-Anglicans. The first two colleges were University College and King's College. From 1849 a student enrolled in any university in the British Empire could be awarded a University of London degree after examination. By the early 20th century many institutions had become affiliated with the university, including Bedford College, the first British institution to grant degrees to women, and the London School of Economics and Political Science, now an internationally renowned centre for the social sciences.

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State-supported university in Leipzig, Germany, founded in 1409. In the 1500s it was a centre of Reformation thought, and in the 18th and 19th centuries it became one of Europe's leading literary and cultural centres, attracting such students as Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, and Richard Wagner. Between 1953 and 1990 it was named Karl Marx University of Leipzig.

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French-language university in Quebec city, Quebec, Canada. Its predecessor institution, the Seminary of Quebec (founded 1663), is considered Canada's first institution of higher learning. The seminary was granted a university charter in 1852 and reorganized in 1970. Today the university has undergraduate and graduate degree programs in numerous fields.

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Private university in Baltimore, Maryland, U.S. It was founded as a graduate school in 1876 through an endowment supplied by the Baltimore merchant Johns Hopkins (1795–1873). It became coeducational after a group of women, in 1893, provided funds for the creation of a medical school. Today its school of medicine and the affiliated Johns Hopkins Hospital constitute one of the nation's leading medical research centres. Besides medicine, the university has schools of arts and sciences, engineering, public health, nursing, music, international studies, and continuing education.

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University in Washington, D.C., the most prominent African American educational institution in the U.S. It is financially supported by the U.S. government but is privately controlled. Though open to students of any ethnicity, it was founded (1867) with a special obligation to educate African American students. It has a college of liberal arts, a graduate school of arts and sciences, and schools or colleges of business and public administration, engineering, human ecology, medicine, dentistry, and law, among others. Its library is the leading research library on African American history.

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Oldest institution of higher learning in the U.S. and widely considered one of the most prestigious. Founded in 1636 in Cambridge, Mass., it was named Harvard College for a Puritan minister, John Harvard (1607–38), who bequeathed to the school his books and half of his estate. It became a university with the establishment of the medical school in 1782. Schools of divinity and law were established in the early 19th century. Charles Eliot, during his long tenure as president (1869–1909), made Harvard an institution with national influence. Harvard has educated seven U.S. presidents, many Supreme Court justices, cabinet officers, and congressional leaders, dozens of major literary and intellectual figures, and numerous Nobel laureates. Its undergraduate school, Harvard College, contains about one-third of the total student body. Radcliffe College (1879) was a coordinate undergraduate women's college. From 1960 women graduated from both Harvard and Radcliffe, and in 1999 Radcliffe was absorbed by Harvard, the name surviving in the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study. Harvard University also has graduate or professional schools of business, education, government, dentistry, architecture and landscape design, and public health. Among its affiliated research institutes are the Museum of Comparative Zoology, the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, and the Fogg Art Museum. Its Widener Library is one of the largest and most important libraries in the world.

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Public university in Glasgow, Scotland. It was founded in 1451 and reorganized in 1577. In the 18th century its faculty included such eminent figures as Adam Smith and James Black; James Watt was an assistant there. In the 19th century the faculty included Joseph Lister and William Thomson (Lord Kelvin). The university faculties represent the arts, divinity, law, medicine, science, veterinary medicine, and engineering. The rector is elected triennially by the students.

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Private university in Washington, D.C., U.S. Founded in 1789, it was the first Roman Catholic (Jesuit) college in the U.S. It has always been open to people of all faiths. It includes a college of arts and sciences, a graduate school, and schools of foreign service, law, medicine, nursing, business, and languages and linguistics. Important facilities include a seismological observatory, the Woodstock Theological Center, and various medical research centres.

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Private university in Atlanta, Georgia, U.S. It was chartered as a college in 1836 under Methodist auspices; in 1915 it merged with a school of medicine to become a university. It consists of two undergraduate colleges (one four-year and one two-year), a graduate school of arts and sciences, a division of allied health professions, and schools of law, business, theology, public health, nursing, and medicine. Research facilities include the Carter Presidential Center, the Yerkes Primate Center, and a cancer centre.

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Private university in Edinburgh, Scotland. It was founded as a college under Presbyterian auspices in 1583 and achieved university status circa 1621 after a divinity school was added. Schools of medicine and law were added in the early 18th century, and faculties of music, science, arts, social sciences, and veterinary medicine were subsequently established. The university has produced a long line of eminent cultural figures, including Sir Walter Scott, John Stuart Mill, Thomas Carlyle, Charles Darwin, David Hume, Robert Louis Stevenson, and Alexander Graham Bell.

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Private university in Durham, N.C. It was created in 1924 through an endowment from James B. Duke, although the original college (Trinity) traces its roots to the mid 19th century. Duke maintained separate campuses for undergraduate men and women until the 1970s. Besides an undergraduate liberal arts college, the university includes schools of business, divinity, engineering, environmental studies, graduate studies, law, medicine (including a medical centre), and nursing.

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or Trinity College

Oldest university in Ireland, founded in 1592 by Elizabeth I and endowed by the city of Dublin. Trinity was originally intended to be the first of many constituent colleges of the university, but no others were established, and the two names became interchangeable. The full benefits of the university (degrees, fellowships, scholarships, etc.) were for many years limited to Anglicans, but in 1873 all religious requirements were eliminated. The university has faculties of arts (humanities and letters), sciences, business, economic and social studies, engineering and systems sciences, health sciences, and graduate studies. The library contains many illuminated manuscripts, including the Book of Kells.

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Privately endowed university in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. It was founded in 1818 as Dalhousie College by the 9th earl of Dalhousie, then lieutenant governor of Nova Scotia, and became a university in 1863. It is organized into faculties of arts, science, management, architecture, engineering, computer science, law, medicine, dentistry, health professions, and graduate studies.

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Comprehensive research university in Ithaca, New York, U.S., a traditional member of the Ivy League. It is both publicly and privately supported. Founded as a land-grant university under the Morrill Act, it was privately endowed by Ezra Cornell (1807–74), a founder of Western Union. Nonsectarian from the beginning, it offered an exceptionally broad curriculum when it opened in 1868. It was the first U.S. university to be divided into colleges offering different degrees. Agricultural science has long been important at Cornell; other strong programs include the life sciences, business management, engineering, the social sciences, and the humanities. Professional and graduate schools offer programs in law, medicine, and the arts and sciences.

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Private university in New York City, a traditional member of the Ivy League. Founded in 1754 as King's College, it was renamed Columbia College when it reopened in 1784 after the American Revolution. It became Columbia University in 1912. Its liberal arts college began admitting women in 1983. Neighbouring Barnard College, founded in 1889 and part of the university since 1900, remains a women's liberal arts school; most courses are open to students of both colleges. From the outset Columbia differed from other private Eastern universities in its emphasis on such subjects as nature study, commerce, history, and government. It has strong graduate programs in the arts and sciences and several notable research institutes. Among its professional schools are those of architecture, business, education (Teachers College, Columbia University), engineering, international and public affairs, journalism, law, medicine (including affiliations with Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center and NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital), nursing, public health, and social work.

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Independent university in Chicago, Illinois, U.S. It was founded in 1890 with an endowment from John D. Rockefeller. William Rainey Harper, its first president (1891–1906), did much to establish its reputation, and under Robert M. Hutchins (1929–51) the university came to be recognized for its broad liberal arts curriculum. The world's first department of sociology was established there in 1892 under Robert E. Park. In 1942 it was the site of the first controlled self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction, under the direction of Enrico Fermi. Other notable achievements include the development of carbon-14 dating and the isolation of plutonium. More than 70 scholars associated with the University of Chicago have been awarded Nobel Prizes in their fields. The university comprises an undergraduate college, several professional schools, and centres for advanced research, including the Oriental Institute (Middle Eastern studies), Yerkes Observatory, the Enrico Fermi Institute, and the Center for Policy Study. The university operates the Argonne National Laboratory.

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Private university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S. It was formed in 1967 through the merger of the Carnegie Institute of Technology (created in 1900 through a gift from Andrew Carnegie) and the Mellon Institute of Industrial Research (founded in 1913 through a gift from Andrew W. Mellon). It comprises schools of technology, science, computer science, humanities and social sciences, fine arts, public policy, and industrial administration. It has built a reputation as an arts centre, operating three galleries, two concert halls, and two theatres.

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U.S. public university with campuses at Berkeley (main campus), Davis, Irvine, Los Angeles, Merced, Riverside, San Diego (La Jolla), San Francisco, Santa Barbara, and Santa Cruz. Established in 1868 in Oakland, it has become one of the largest university systems in the U.S. The Berkeley campus, which replaced the Oakland campus in 1873, remains a leader in scientific fields as well as in many other academic areas. In the 1930s researchers there produced the first cyclotron, isolated the human polio virus, and discovered several new chemical elements. The San Francisco campus, originally a medical college, joined the University of California in 1873 and remains a centre for medical research and education. The San Diego campus, founded as a marine station, became part of the university in 1912; it includes the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. The Los Angeles branch (UCLA), founded in 1919, includes schools of law, medicine, and engineering. The Santa Barbara campus, originally founded as a teachers college, joined the university system in 1944. The Davis and Riverside campuses grew out of agricultural institutes and were added in 1959. To answer a growing need for broad-based education and research, the university opened campuses at Santa Cruz and Irvine in 1965 and added the Merced campus in 2005. The University of California operates nuclear research centres at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Los Alamos National Laboratory.

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Private university in Providence, Rhode Island, U.S., a traditional member of the Ivy League. It was founded in 1764 as Rhode Island College and renamed in 1804 for a benefactor, Nicholas Brown. It became coeducational in 1971 when it merged with Pembroke, a women's college founded in 1891. Today it offers undergraduate and graduate degrees in all major academic fields; its school of medicine awards the M.D. Research facilities include centres for geological, astronomical, and educational research.

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Private university in Provo, Utah, U.S. Founded in 1875 by the Mormon church president Brigham Young, it continues to be supported by the Mormon church. It comprises nine colleges as well as schools of management and law. Important research facilities include laboratories for nuclear, plasma, and solid-state physics, aquatic ecology, and veterinary pathology and institutes for the study of food and agriculture and of computer-aided manufacturing.

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Oldest university in Europe, founded in Bologna, Italy, in 1088. It became in the 12th–13th centuries the principal centre for studies in civil and canon law, and it served as a model for the organization of universities throughout Europe. Its faculties of medicine and philosophy were formed circa 1200. The faculty of science was developed in the 17th century. In the 18th century women were admitted as students and teachers. The modern university includes faculties of law, political science, economics, letters and philosophy, natural sciences, agriculture, medicine, and engineering.

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Public university in Canberra, Australian Capital Territory. Founded in 1946, it originally offered only graduate programs. Undergraduates were first admitted in 1960, and today the university offers a wide range of graduate and undergraduate programs. Affiliated with the university are research schools of medicine, physical and biological sciences, social sciences, and Pacific studies.

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University is an unincorporated census-designated place in Hillsborough County, Florida, United States. The population was 30,736 at the 2000 census. However, as of the 2003 estimate by Rand McNally, the community population is approximately 33,200. It is the home of University of South Florida located just east of the community. The community is also known as University West, mainly due to its location in relation to the university. The community is often notoriously referred to by locals as Suitcase City due to very high eviction rates in the area during the late 1980s and early 1990s.

Description

University is bounded by Interstate 275 to the west, Tampa city limits to the south, University of South Florida to the east, and Bearss Avenue to the north. Its historical boundaries stretch as far east as Morris Bridge Road; however, the boundaries were scaled back owing to annexations by Tampa and Temple Terrace during the 1980s. The community is one of the most diverse in the county; however, the Hispanic (mostly Mexican and Central American) population is growing very rapidly and now represents an estimate 20-25% of University's population.

Economy

University Mall, a shopping center located at the southern end of the community, was the main source of economic development within the community during the 1970s-1980's. The businesses that were concentrated in the mall have been replaced by many stand alone shops along Fowler and Fletcher Avenues, such as Wal-Mart and dozens of fast food establishments. There is a county bus transportation center operated by HARTline and a county health department located in the area. Fletcher east has become a hub of medical and dental groups adjacent to University Community Hospital.

Geography

University is located at (28.069644, -82.437091).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the community has a total area of 3.9 square miles (10.0 km²), of which, 3.9 square miles (10.0 km²) of it is land and 0.26% is water.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 31,736 people, 13,623 households, and 5,748 families residing in the community. The population density was 7,941.3 people per square mile (3,066.5/km²). There were 15,494 housing units at an average density of 4,003.2/sq mi (1,545.8/km²). The racial composition of the community is 51.30% White, 34.06% Black, 0.41% Native American, 3.61% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 6.37% from other races, and 4.17% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 19.3% of the population.

There were 13,623 households out of which 24.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 18.1% were married couples living together, 18.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 57.8% were non-families. 41.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.12 and the average family size was 2.96.

In the community the population was spread out with 22.8% under the age of 18, 22.1% from 18 to 24, 32.5% from 25 to 44, 12.1% from 45 to 64, and 10.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 27 years. For every 100 females there were 97.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.8 males.

The median income for a household in the community was $22,090, and the median income for a family was $24,094. Males had a median income of $22,419 versus $20,219 for females. The per capita income for the community was $13,417. About 24.8% of families and 31.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 39.6% of those under age 18 and 14.0% of those age 65 or over.

University's Population History from the U.S. Census Bureau

  • 1970....10,039
  • 1980....24,514
  • 1990....23,760 (Z)
  • 2000....30,736

(Z): Area reported as University West in the 1990 census.

References

External links

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