Ulan-Ude (Ула́н-Удэ́; ) is the capital city of the Buryat Republic, Russia, is located about 100 km south-east of Lake Baikal on the Uda River at its confluence with the Selenga. According to the 2002 Census, 359,391 residents lived in Ulan-Ude, up from 351,806 recorded in 1989 and it is the third largest city in eastern Siberia.
The first occupants of the area where Ulan-Ude now stands were the Evenks and, later, the Buryat Mongols. Ulan-Ude was founded in 1666 by the Russian Cossacks as Udinskoye. Due to its favourable geographical position, the city grew rapidly and became a large trade centre which connected Russia with China and Mongolia and, from 1690, was the administrative center of the Transbaikal region. In 1775, the city, now Udinsk, was chartered as a city and in in 1783 was renamed Verkhneudinsk. After a large fire in 1878, the city was almost completely rebuilt. The Trans-Siberian Railway reached the city in 1900 causing an explosion in growth. The population which was 3500 in 1880 reached 126,000 in 1939. On 27 July 1934, the city was renamed Ulan-Ude.
Ulan Ude has a moderate subarctic climate with mean temperatures of . The hottest month, July, has a mean temperature of and the coldest, January, is . Ulan-Ude receives an average of precipitation per year, mostly in the summer.
The ethnic makeup of the city's population in 2002:
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