Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol (Italian: Trentino-Alto Adige; German: Trentino-Südtirol; Ladin: Trentin-Adesc Aut , also Trentin-Sudtirol) is an autonomous region in Northern Italy. It consists of two provinces: Trento and Bolzano-Bozen. The region was part of Austria-Hungary (and its predecessor, the Austrian Empire) from 1815 until its annexation by Italy in 1919. It was officially referred to as Venezia Tridentina between 1919 and 1947 and Trentino-Alto Adige/Tiroler Etschland between 1947 and 1972. In English, the commonly used term is Trentino-Alto Adige; Trentino-South Tyrol is also sometimes used. Together with the Austrian state of Tyrol it is represented by the Euroregion Tirol-Südtirol/Alto Adige-Trentino.
Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol is divided into two autonomous provinces:
From the 11th century onwards, part of the region was governed by the prince-bishops of Trento and Brixen, to whom the Holy Roman Emperors had given extensive temporal powers over their bishoprics. The rest was part of the County of Tyrol: in 1363 its last titular, Marguerite of Gorizia (von Görz) ceded it to the House of Habsburg. The northern regions were largely Germanized in the early Renaissance (14th century), and important German poets like Oswald von Wolkenstein were originally of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol.
The two Bishoprics were secularized by the Treaty of Luneville of 1803 and given to the Habsburgs. Two years later, following the Austrian defeat at Austerlitz, the region was given to Napoleon's ally Bavaria (Treaty of Pressburg, 1805). The new rulers provoked a peasant rebellion, led by local hero Andreas Hofer, in 1809 which was soon crushed; the Treaty of Paris of February 1810 split the area between Austria and the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy. After Napoleon's defeat, in 1815, the region returned to Austria. During French control of the region, it was called officially Haut Adige (literally "High Adige", Italian: "Alto Adige"; German: "Hoch Etsch") in order to avoid any reference to the historical Austrian Tyrol province.
During the First World War, major battles were fought high in the Alps and Dolomites between Austro-Hungarian and Italian forces, for whom control of the region was a key strategic objective. The collapse of the Austro-Hungarian war effort enabled Italian troops to occupy the region in 1918 and its annexation was confirmed in the post-war treaties, which awarded the region to Italy under the terms of the Treaty of Saint-Germain.
Under the rule of Benito Mussolini, the Fascist dictator of Italy (ruled 1922-1943), Alto Adige/Südtirol was subjected to an intensive programme of Italianization: all references to old Tyrol were banned and the region was referred to as "Venezia Tridentina," in an attempt to justify the Italian claims to the area by historically linking the region to one of the Roman Regions of Italy (Regio X Venetia et Histria). Hitler and Mussolini agreed in 1938 that the German-speaking population would be transferred to German-ruled territory or dispersed around Italy, but the outbreak of the Second World War prevented them from fully carrying out the relocation. Nevertheless thousands of people were relocated to the Third Reich and only with great difficulties managed to return to their ancestral land after the end of the war.
In 1943, when the Italian government signed an armistice with the Allies, the region was occupied by Germany, which reorganised it as the Operation Zone of the Alpine Foothills and put it under the administration of Gauleiter Franz Hofer. The region was de facto annexed to the German Reich (with the addition of the province of Belluno) until the end of the war. This status ended along with the Nazi regime and Italian rule was restored in 1945.
Italy and Austria negotiated an agreement in 1946, put into effect in 1947 when a new Italian constitution was promulgated, that the region would be granted considerable autonomy. German and Italian were both made official languages, and German-language education was permitted once more. However, the implementation of the agreement was not seen as satisfactory by either the German-speaking population or the Austrian government. The issue became the cause of significant friction between the two countries and was taken up by the United Nations in 1960. A fresh round of negotiations took place in 1961 but proved unsuccessful, partly because of a campaign of terrorism by German-speaking separatists.
The issue was only resolved in 1971 when a new Austro-Italian treaty was signed and ratified. It stipulated that disputes in the province of Bolzano would be submitted for settlement to the International Court of Justice in The Hague, that the province would receive greater autonomy within Italy, and that Austria would not interfere in Bolzano's internal affairs. The new agreement proved broadly satisfactory to the parties involved and the separatist tensions soon eased. Matters were helped further by Austria's accession to the European Union in 1995, which has helped to improve cross-border cooperation.
The regional capital is Trento and the region is divided into two autonomous provinces: Province of Trento (or Trentino), and Province of Bolzano (or Alto Adige/Südtirol). The provincial capitals alternate biennially as the site of the regional parliament. The autonomy of both provinces elevates them de facto to the status of autonomous regions. At the April 2006 elections, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol gave 62% of its votes to Romano Prodi.
The fertile valleys of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol produce wine, fruit, dairy products and timber, while its industries include paper, chemical and metal production. The region is a major exporter of hydroelectric power. Tourism is an important source of revenue and the region is renowned for its winter skiing opportunities, especially in the Gherdëina (Gardena) valley.
Towns of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol with a population of 50,000 or more:
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